第一章 进入红色中国

CHAPTER I

INTO RED CHINA

第一节 前言
1. Foreword

  第二次世界大战结束时,蒋介石趾高气扬,不可一世。

  把他打得无法招架的日本军队,放下武器向他投降了。一百年来对中国实行帝国主义侵略的西方列强,也乖乖地归还了租界,承认中国是一个主权完整的国家,承认蒋介石是中国的合法统治者。

  在国内,蒋介石的地位看来十分巩固。当时他统率着四百万大军,其中三十九个师是美国帮他训练、全部美械装备的。他的空军在亚洲大陆是首屈一指的。过去反对过他的军阀和政界人士,几乎全被他囚禁或制服了。唯一可能对他的权力挑战的,是八年前被他围困在贫瘠的西北黄土高原窑洞里、几乎被他消灭的一伙共产党游击队。

  这位中国独裁者从他战时的藏身之地重庆出来,胜利地回到他的首都南京,准备着、盘算着、并且看来也有可能恢复他对四亿五千万中国人民的绝对统治。从外表看,蒋委员长似乎成了近二百年中国历史上最强大的统治者。

WHEN World War II ended, Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek must have been content.

  The Japanese Army, which he had resisted so stubbornly, but so unsuccessfully had just surrendered to him without a fight. The Western powers, with equal docility, had given up their hundred-year role of imperialist aggression, returned the treaty port concessions and recognized China as a fully sovereign state and Chiang as her rightful ruler.

  Among his own countrymen, Chiang's position appeared even more secure. Under his command, he now had an army of four million men, thirty-nine divisions of which had been American trained and equipped; he had the largest air force any Asiatic mainland power had ever possessed and he held captive or had made innocuous nearly every warlord or politician who had ever opposed him. The only possible challenge to his power was a band of Communist guerrillas whom eight years before he had penned up in the barren loess and cave country of the northwest and all but liquidated.

  Emerging from his wartime hide-out at Chungking, China's dictator returned in triumph to his capital in Nanking, ready, willing and seemingly able once more to assume undisputed sway over 450,000,000 people. Outwardly, the generalissimo appeared to have become the most powerful ruler in the last two centuries of Chinese history.

  不到四年之后,当我写这些文字时,蒋介石的处境已经急转直下。他已经逃离他的首都,退居原籍乡下。他的政府的行政院长恬不知耻地敦促美国恢复不平等条约,在中国设立陆、海军基地。他的妻子跑到美国来,哀求美国官员帮助他挽回颓势,也许到头来还要挽救他的性命。   Less than four years later, as I wrote these words, the prospects of Chiang had undergone a cataclysmic change. He had already fled from his capital and sought refuge in his ancestral home, the premier of his government had unblushingly urged the United States to revive the unequal treaties and establish military and naval bases in China and his wife had come to this country to beg American officials to save the shattered fortunes, perhaps, in the long run, the very life of her husband.

  这时,恰恰就是那些一度被人轻视的共产党游击队,已经拿下整个满洲和华北,毅然决然地渡过长江,攻占了国民党的首都南京,大有横扫全中国之势:不但要彻底推翻蒋介石的二十年王朝和西方帝国主义在东方的百年统治,而且要完全改变中国超过二千年的几乎原封不动的生活方式。

  除非这一切那是虚假的,否则,正如俄国革命是第一次世界大战的最大副产品那样,中国革命也大有可能是第二次世界大战的最大副产品。

  In the meantime, these same despised Communist guerrillas have conquered all of Manchuria and North China, captured the capital of Chinese nationalism at Nanking, crossed their Rubicon on the Yangtze and are threatening to overrun the whole country and bring tumbling into ruins, not only the twenty-year reign of Chiang Kai-shek, not only the 100-year reign of Western imperialism in the Orient, but also a way of life that has existed almost unchanged in China for over two thousand years.

  Unless all signs are deceiving, it appears likely that just as the Russian Revolution was the greatest by-product of World War I so the Chinese Revolution will he the greatest by-product of World War II.

  这是历史上少有的急剧变动,要知道这里涉及世界五分之一的人口。没有几个人曾预见到中国内战这种戏剧性的转折。我一九四六年再次来到中国时发现,在华的外国观察家对蒋介石和他二十多年的仇敌打仗的结局大致上有三种估计。

  少数西方军界人士认为,蒋委员长不出一年就会击败共产党,迫使他们投降,或者把他们消灭。更少的人(被认为思想非常激进和左倾的)认为,如果没有外国的干涉,战争将继续二、三十年以至五十年。绝大多数人认为,蒋介石即使不能完全消灭共产党,也能把他们赶入山中,打通铁路线,重新统一中国,谁也无法与他争雄。

  You will find few such abrupt changes in history - specially if you remember that it involves one-fifth of the world's population. Nor will you find many people who foresaw this dramatic turnabout in China's civil war. When I returned to China at the end of 1946, I found that among foreign observers there were three general opinions about the outcome of the war between Chiang and his enemies of twenty years'sstanding.

  A small group of Western military men believed that the generalissimo would overrun the Communists within a year and force them to surrender or liquidate them. An even smaller group (considered very radical and leftish) believed, if there were no foreign intervention, that the war would go on for twenty, thirty and even fifty years. The opinion of by far the greatest majority, however, was that Chiang, though not being able to eliminate the Communists entirely, would nevertheless be able to drive them back in the hills, open up the railways and once more unite the country with no one to dispute his control.

  事后看来,应该说这些看法之缺乏见识,就象那些搞民意测验的人员曾经预告,美国人民在投票中将使杜鲁门总统落选一样。从根本上说,这些预言之所以落空,那是由于未能掌握一些极普通的人民的心理。

  这全是老生常谈,无需多加发挥。但即使在今天,当中国共产党到处战胜蒋介石的时候,这些重大事件的原因,不是未得到正确的理解,便是受到蓄意的歪曲。于是我们看到,象前大使蒲立特、众议员贾德、陈纳德将军、艾尔弗雷德·兰登等这料一些高级人士,以及为蒋介石的覆灭而哭丧的形形色色的吊客,都把这个所谓痛心的结局归罪于马歇尔的错误政策、俄国人的阴谋、共产党的宣传以及天晓得的其他原因。这些中国问题专家左看看,右看看,还惶恐地抬眼朝天上看看,却从来不肯抱着同情心地朝下看看。他们找到造成蒋介石失败的各种各样的原因,可就是没有找到真正的原因,即中国革命。是这场革命,而不是任何别的原因,造成了奇迹,把那个骄横不可一世的中国独裁者打翻在地,使东方的力量对比发生如此深刻的变化,以致整个世界历史都可能为之而改观。

  In the light of events, these opinions must be considered as ill informed as those of the poll takers who predicted that the American people would vote President Truman Out of office. Fundamentally, these prophecies backfired for the same reason -failure to look into the hearts of a number of very common people.  

  This would seem so trite as to need no further elaboration. But even today, when the Chinese Communists are everywhere victorious over Chiang Kai-shek, the causes of these tremendous events are either ill understood or deliberately blurred. Thus we find such highly placed people as ex-Ambassador William C. Bullitt, Congressman Walter Judd, General Claire Chennault, Alfred Landon, and a strange group of lugubrious mourners at Chiang Kai-shek's bier putting the blame for this supposedly regrettable state of affairs on mistakes in George Marshall's policy, Russian machinations, Communist propaganda and God knows what else. Looking around right and left, casting their eyes heavenward in horror, but never earthward in sympathy, these China experts have discovered every reason for the defeat of Chiang Kai-shek but the right one -the Chinese Revolution. This revolution - and nothing else - is the miracle that has brought China's once proud dictator to his feet in near ruins and has so changed the correlation of forces in the Orient that the whole history of the world is likely to be altered.

  这样巨大的事件不是在一夜之间发生的,而且它还在发展之中。它之所以能够发生,要归因于现代历史上最大的一场悲剧——资本主义西方和封建主义东方的碰撞。这两种文明汇合的结果,使几乎整个中华民族逐步陷入贫困的灾难之中。这样的进程不是遵循着任何狭隘的马克思主义路线,而是沿着宽阔的大路走向几乎全面的大崩溃,使得农民、知识分子以至于统治者通通被抛出了原来的轨道。到了一九四五年,中国人民身上的脓包终于破裂,内战再起,并且很快发展为革命。

  中国革命同任何其他社会大革命一样,其前提是:一、社会处于解体中,它已病人膏盲,再也无法解决本国的迫切问题和保障人民的生活条件;二、人民痛恨现政权,广大群众中出现了革命情绪,人们被逼得走投无路,为了找到活路,准备不惜一切牺牲,铤而走险,视死如归,三、统治集团内部存在不可调和的矛盾,这个集团丧失了一切创造精神,对把社会拉出死胡同毫无信心,四、出现了一个新集团或政党,能够利用上述各种因素来取得对社会的控制,并实施它自己的拯救社会的纲领。

  所有这些因素导致了中国革命,这个过程尚在继续着。毫无疑问,只有从产生当代中国的历史环境中,才能找到中国革命的主要线索。西方势力的侵入,改变了中国的经济结构,加以旧有的生活准则几乎全部被破坏,促使了中国社会内部的阶级冲突,于是产生了革命的必要性。

  This mighty event did not take place overnight and it is still going on; the fact that it ever occurred at all was due to one of the greatest tragedies of modern times - the collision between the capitalist West and the feudal East. The intermingling qf these two civilizations resulted in the slow, but nevertheless cataclysmic, proletarianization of nearly the entire Chinese people. Such a process proceeded not along any narrow Marxian path, but unrolled down a broad avenue of almost universal dissolution, with peasant, intellectual and ruler all being dispossessed from their environment. By 1945, this abscessed condition of the Chinese people burst forth once more in renewed civil war and quickly thereafter passed over into revolution.

  The premises of the Chinese Revolution, like any other great social revolution were: 1. A disintegrating society, so diseased that it had become incapable of solving the urgent problems of the nation or the living conditions of her people. 2. A bitter hostility to the existing regime plus a revolutionary mood among huge masses of people who were so far gone in despair that they were willing to undergo supreme sacrifices and resort to the most extreme and even suicidal measures to save themselves. 3. Irremedial contradictions within the ruling group which had lost all creative powers and confidence in its ability to get society out of its blind alley. 4. A new group or party which could utilize all the above factors in order to gain control over society and put into practice its own program for saving that society.

  All of these factors produced, and are still producing the Chinese Revolution. Undoubtedly, it is in the historic conditions which formed China that one must seek the chief clue to the Chinese Revolution. The changed economic structure of China, as a result of Western penetration, along with the destruction of nearly all previously held life values, produced a conflict of classes within Chinese society which led to the need for revolution.

  但是,在必要性和可能性之间存在着一道鸿沟。一百年来中国社会就存在着用革命加以改造的迫切必要性。但这革命一直没有完成,原因很简单;外来帝国主义的力量太大,不准中国人民掌握他们自己的命运。第二次世界大战的结果,作为远东最危险、最强大的帝国主义的日本被打败了,西欧的帝国主义也遭到削弱,这才使中国革命成为可能,并使它转入一个新方向。

  但是,革命的可能性和革命的成功之间也存在着一道鸿沟。明摆着的事实是,如果没有日本的失败,没有西方资本主义的削弱,没有抗日战争时期中国内部发生的变化,中国共产党就根本不可能夺得政权。然而,同样明显的是,第二次世界大战只是在基本的意义上影响、而不能决定中国内战的具体进程。基于同样的道理,一九四五至一九四九年间中国经济及中国各阶级的社会基础的变化,也不能决定中国内战的曲折进程。这些变化甚微小,不足以说明为什么共产党恰恰是在世界历史的这个时刻战胜蒋介石的。

  Between need and possibility, however, there is a wide gulf. For a hundred years the necessity to transform Chinese society by revolution has been imperative. But that revolution never was completed for the simple reason that foreign imperialism was entirely too strong to permit the Chinese people to take control over their own destinies. The Second World War which brought about the defeat of Japan, most dangerous and most powerful of the imperialist countries in the Far East, plus the weakening of western European imperialism, was what made the Chinese Revolution possible and also what changed it in a new direction.

  Here again, however, there is also a wide gulf between the possibility of revolution and the success of revolution. It is perfectly clear that without the defeat of Japan, without the weakening of Western capitalsm and without those changes which took place inside of China during the Japanese invasion, the Chinese Communists would never have been able to conquer state power. However, it is equally clear, that the Second World War, except in a basic way, cannot account for the immediate events of China's civil war. Nor can the changes in China's economy or the social bases of her classes between 1945 and 1949 account for the twists and turns which that war took. These changes were entirely too insignificant to explain why the Communists were victorious over Chiang Kai-shek just at this moment in world history.

  我并不想过份强调心理上的因素,但人们不能不认为,蒋介石之所以在这时被打败,是因为在一九四五至一九四九年间中国绝大多数人民的人心向背发生了急剧的变化。

  这种人心向背的变化不是在冷静的学术性气氛中,而是在十分激情高昂的情况下发生的。在一九四五至一九四九年这段期间,激情在中国内战中起了主要作用。我并不否认,这种激情是以前就存在的外部条件所造成的。但是只有当中国人民的激情冲破束缚它的一切牢笼,并对中国社会的客观环境发生作用时,共产党及其同盟者才能乘势夺得天下。

  Without wishing to give psychological elements any more weight than they deserve, it is nevertheless impossible to avoid the conclusion that China's dictator was defeated when he was because of the swift and intense changes which took place in the feelings of a decisive portion of the Chinese people between 1945 and 1949.

  This change in mass consciousness did not take place in any serene and academic atmosphere, but in one highly charged with emotion. Between 1945 and 1949, it was emotion that played the principal role in China's civil war. That this emotion was produced by previously existing external conditions, the writer does not deny. But it was only when the passions of the Chinese people burst their old confining fetters and in turn reacted on the objective conditions of Chinese society that the Communists and their allies were able to ride to power.

  蒋介石是被激情、而且主要是被激情搞垮的。中国农民投入战争与革命中的热切的希望和刻骨的仇根,化成巨大的激情的能量,像在中国社会中爆炸一颗原子弹似的,几乎把中国社会炸得粉碎。从农民们蜂拥着冲进地主宅院的脚步声里,从一个其土地被农民分掉、其身躯也被乱棒砸成肉酱的大地主垂死呼号中,从一柄杀猪尖刀向着其祖宗牌位平素受到农民拜祀的族长的心窝猛扎进去的闪光中,从一个被自己的母亲引来的蒋介石特务砍掉脑袋挖出肠子的姑娘的惨叫声中,从阴沉沉地念着“蒋介石来了”的摆香案降神的巫婆的喃哺咒语中,从妇女们用剪刀剪割一个恶霸身上的肉时发出的咔嚓咔嚓声中,从过去在丈夫拳脚下呻吟、如今在村里组织起妇女会的新媳妇们把她们所痛恨的男人又打又抓又撕时发出的凶狠的复仇叫喊声中,可以感到、看到、听到这种激情的广度和深度。在中国辽阔的国土上,在平原、山区以及田野里,这种激情到处都高涨起来,成为一股势不可挡的新力量。

  在内战和革命中,主要的任务就是如何因势利导这些巨大的激情。那时几乎没有什么先例可遵循,没有任何航海图可作指南。过去蒋介石之所以能够维持其对中国人民的统治,是因为群众的失望和仇恨还不足以激发他们摆脱麻木状态。当出现了新的局面,激愤的农民起来的时候,蒋介石本当理解这种新局面和农民的激愤之情;但这两件事他都没有做到。事实上他根本不想去了解人民的心情。这就是蒋介石失败的一部分内因,也是美国对华政策失败的一部分内因。美国政府、美国报界、美国人民以及美国在远东的各使馆、军事机构和商业办事处,都只顾本国或本身的狭隘利益,而看不到苦难的中国农民的心情,这些农民虽然目不识丁,但心情极度激愤。

  It was passion and principally passion that overwhelmed Chiang Kai-shek. The radiant hopes and murderous hates that the Chinese peasantry poured into the sphere of war and revolution released a flood of emotional energy that exploded with the force of an atomic bomb within Chinese society, nearly dissolving it. The extent and depths of these passions could be felt and seen and heard in the trampling rush of peasant feet toward the landlord's manor; in the dying gasp of a village noble whose body, as well as whose land, was divided by club-swinging peasants; in the flash of a pig knife plunged into the heart of a clan leader whose ancestral tablets the farmers might normally have worshiped; in the shriek of a girl whose mother led Chiang Kai-shek's secret service to chop off her daughter's head and pull out her intestines; in the religious groans of village witches who called down gods to their incense tables and chanted in sepulchral tones: "Chiang Kai-shek comes!" in the snick of scissors wielded by women cutting off the flesh of a village oppressor; in the lamentations of village brides beaten by their husbands and in their murderous cries of vengeance as they organized themselves into Women's Associations and beat, scratched and tore the flesh of their hated lords and masters; everywhere on the good Chinese earth, across the plains, the mountains and the fields, these passions rose up as a new and unconquerable force.

  Primarily it was the task of the civil war and the revolution to canalize these tremendous emotions. There was almost no precedent to follow, no chart by which to steer. Where Chiang Kai-shek had been successful previously in maintaining his rule over the Chinese people, it had been because the despair and the hate of the masses had not been sufficient to stir them out of their traditional apathy. When new conditions arose and the peasantry rose angrily with them, it was necessary that Chiang Kai-shek try to understand both the conditions and the emotions of the peasantry. He failed in both respects; in fact, he did not even try to understand the hearts of his own people. That is part of the inner history of Chiang Kai-shek's defeat and it is also part of the history of American policy in China. Neither the American government, the American press, nor the American people, nor many of their representatives in the Far East in the embassies, the military establishments and the business offices sought to look beyond their own narrow national or personal interests toward the heart of the admittedly ignorant, but terribly emotional, bitter men and women of China.

  对于这些(美国)人,体会一下穆罕默德谴责麦加商人的话是适当的:

  但你们不优待孤儿,
  又不相互鼓励,施食于穷人。

  中国共产党人则不是这样的人。因为他们自己就是先知——有时是假有时是真,视情况而定。作为先知,他们找到一幅航海图——一种本领——来指引他们穿过战争和革命所唤起的非常单纯而古老的激情的惊涛骇浪。阿摩司就是用这种本领把耶和华从天上请下来,严厉惩办以色列的统治阶级的:

  我厌恶你们的节庆,
  也不喜欢你们的集会。
  你们虽然向我献燔祭和素祭,
  我却不悦纳。
  也不顾念你们用肥畜献的平安祭。
  要使你们歌唱的声音远离我,
  而且我不听你们的奏乐。
  惟愿公平如大水溶溶,
  正义似江河滔滔。

  以色列的先知们是用这些话改造上帝的,共产主义的先知们也是用这些话改造了并正在改造着中国社会的。

  To all such people, one could justly address the words Mohammed used to denounce the Meccan merchants:

  But ye honor not the orphan
  Nor urge ye one another to feed the poor.  

  No such words could be addressed to the Chinese Communists. For they themselves were prophets - false or true ones, as the case might be. And in their character of prophets they found a chart - a technique - for navigating through the stormy waves of emotion raised up by war and revolution that was very simple and very old. It was the technique of Amos who brought Yahweh thundering down from the heights to rage against the ruling classes of Israel.

  I hate, I spurn your festal gatherings.
  Even though you offer me burnt offerings,
  And your cereal offerings, I will not accept them
  And the thank offerings of your fatted beasts I will not look upon.
  Take away from me the noise of your songs,
  And to the melody of your lyres I will not listen.
  But let justice roll down like waters,
  And righteousness like a perennial stream.

  With such words the prophets of Israel transformed God, and with such words the prophets of Communism have and are transforming Chinese society.