第七章 土地与革命
CHAPTER VII

LAND AND REVOLUTION
第三十一节 暗杀 投毒 美人计
31. Murder, Poison and Seduction
  反抗封建统治的斗争,在解放区各地普遍展开了。它有如滚滚的洪流,奔腾向前,漫溢四方,直达蒋管区的边界。它使地主老财们望而生畏,闻风丧胆。为了捞取救命稻草,各地土豪纷纷改变策略,争相披上开明绅士的外衣。他们不再公开地反对农民组织了,而在暗地里,却多方策划组织由他们一手操纵的农民团体。他们网罗村里的地痞流氓,拼凑五花入门的农民协会,妄图以此来控制农民群众,逃避清算。当县里的干部下来视察时,看到村里各种农民组织应有尽有,于是向大家祝贺一番便告辞而去。可是农民群众看到,过去欺压他们的人现在依旧骑在他们头上,心里就凉了半截,感到十分愤懑和疑惧。

  在河北省有个名叫灰菜峪的材子。有一天,一个农民回家对妻子说:“咱们决不能再让地主欺压咱们了!”他妻子回答说:“要说欺压咱也受惯了,咱们拙嘴笨舌的,哪里比得上人家财主能说会道。”她的话反映了当时许多农民的思想状况。翻身运动又一次陷入低潮。下乡的干部们再也看不到往日种热火朝天的情景了。农民群众为了获得土地而奋起斗争,可是似乎他们斗来斗去还是摆脱不了地主的控制。更有甚者,地主的这种主宰一切的权力,恰恰就是由农民群众自己组织的协会来维护的。这种状况使贫苦的农民群众感到茫然。此时此刻,他们需要干部们加以引导。

  在山东省平阴县境内有个村子,村长名叫王毛品,是个形容枯槁的大烟鬼,过去靠在集市上摆赌摊为生。当村里的农民群众显露出反抗情绪时,地主把王毛品找去,面授机宜,许诺给他十五亩地酬劳。一夜之间,这个赌棍拼凑了一个农会和一个雇农团,自己摇身一变,成了这两个团体的主席,后来又成了一村之长。县救国会派来的干部进村后,看到村里应有的各种民主机构似乎都已建立。在地主的授意下,王毛品形影不离地跟在这个干部屁股后面,大献殷勤,同时又威胁群众说:“谁敢提清算二字,就打断他的腿!”

  一天夜里,那个干部在一间茅屋里秘密会见了七个农民。王毛品得知后,操起长矛破门而入,厉声责问那几个农民:“你们在这儿干啥?”可是他看到县干部在场,不便进一步发作,只是紧握长矛,恶狠狠地瞪着那几个农民。在座的几个农民慌忙起身,一个个溜走了。县干部随着王毛品来到屋外,几个手持长矛的大汉一拥而上。“咱们是保护您的,”王毛品连忙解释说,一面又劝这个干部尽早撤走。第二天,这位干部不仅没有撤走,反而召开了一次群众大会,在会上当众把王毛品训斥了一顿。到会的群众都禁不住开心地笑了,可是谁也不敢说什么。

  县干部在会上的强硬讲话,使那个地主惊恐不安,便在当晚逃跑了。临走之前,他对王毛品交代说:“看来清算是难免了,不过你要给咱留点面子,设法应付过去。“地主逃跑后,王毛品去找县干部说,“您瞧,咱可是一个心眼为您效劳。咱来向您报告,地主他跑了。”“你为什么把他放跑了?”干部质问他。

  “没啥关系!跑了和尚跑不了庙,兔子跑了窝还在。只管清算他的土地不就得了?”王毛品吆喝了二十来人,在地主家的大门上贴了封条,把地主宅院看守起来。然后对大伙儿说:“地主有一千多亩庄稼,咱们全给他收了!”同时,他假意派人去抓地主,派去的人却给地主通风报信。县干部被他胡弄得不知该如何办才好。村长当着众人的面装出一副与地主势不两立的样子,实际上处处都在维护地主的利益。

  县干部提议把地主的粮食拿出三万斤分给受过地主剥削的农民。王毛品却说:“不成,得拿出十万斤,还得分他的房子。”可是暗地里他又对大伙儿说:“行了,这就满够了,就到此为止吧!”然而县干部继续发动群众,坚决表示:“地是一定要分的,等地主回来咱们再好好跟他算算帐。”

  与此同时,村里对村长进行了改选。这个赌棍被罢免后,给地主捎信说:“眼下咱不能为您效劳了。”后来,地主得悉群众担保不杀他,于是决定回村去。有许多死于饥饿的雇农的亲属在村口等着他,他一到就被抓住痛打了一顿。他浑身哆哆嗦嗦,被押送诉苦大会的会场。在会上,一个农民控诉了地主和他的狗腿子王毛品如何把他和他的妻子儿女一起关进一间土牢里,剥光衣服用鞭子子抽打。说到这里,王毛品站起来揭发了地主干的其它许多坏事。地主没想到跟了他多年的狗腿子竟然也背叛了他,感到很狼狈,转身对王毛品说道,“今天咱才知道你是个啥东西!”说完就跪倒在地上,连连向周围的人叩头求饶。群众饶了他一条狗命。

  就这样,一村又一村,一桩又一桩,地主的阴谋一一被戳穿了。农民群众吸取了以往的经验教训。把窃踞村中要职的土豪劣绅一个个全罢免了。斗争中,贫雇农的信心迅速增强。在清算运动最初的几个月里,某些农民就没收地主财产的问题曾经同地主讨价还价。地主说:“眼下你护着咱,将来国民党来了咱也护着你。“农民说:“现在你把土地交出来,国民党来了再还给你。”而现在,除了拉锯战地区以外这种情况没有了,运动一步比一步更加激烈。

THE revolt against the feudal rulers threatened to become epidemic. Like flood water, the rising swelled and spread, inundating all the districts even to the borders of Chiang Kai-shek's areas. Watching from his manor, the landlord felt he was about to be engulfed.

  In order to save himself, the larger landholder abruptly changed tactics, and began to adopt a protective liberal coloring. Instead of opposing the peasant organs, he now took an active, but concealed, part in organizing them. At his command, rascals, loafers and village bullies rushed to form various peasant associations. In this way the landlords hoped to control the farmers and avoid a settlement. Arriving from the county seats, and seeing every conceivable kind of organization in existence, the cadres would congratulate the farmers and go on to some other village. The peasants, finding themselves still under the same old rulers, quickly passed from enthusiasm to disgust and fear.

  In the village of Huitsaiyu in Hopei Province a farmer came home and told his wife: "We must release ourselves from the landlord." His wife replied: "We are accustomed to be oppressed. We can't speak as fluently as the landlords. We are too slow." The words of this farm wife expressed the mood of many peasants. The movement fell back again. In vain did the cadres scan the villages for signs of the old enthusiasm. They were no longer to be seen. The peasant wanted land, but the more he struggled, the more he seemed to come under the landlord's grip. Worst of all, the landlord's power was maintained by the very associations which the peasant had formed.

  The poor farmer was at a loss. The cadre had to take the lead again. In a certain district of Pingying County in Shantung, there was a village chief named Wang Mao-pin. An opium smoker with a pale blue face, he had formerly operated gambling stalls on village fairgrounds. When the peasants showed signs of restlessness, the landlord called Wang and promised him fifteen mow of land to work on his behalf. Overnight, the gambler organized a Farmers Association and a Workers Union, becoming head of each and later becoming village chief. When a cadre from the county Salvation Association entered the village, it seemed as if every kind of democratic organization had been formed, On instructions from the landlord, Wang followed the cadre everywhere, performing many services for him. To the peasants, he said: "I'll break the legs of anyone who dares mention the word settlement."

  One night seven farmers met secretly with the cadre in a hut. Wang burst in armed with a spear. "What are you doing here?" he shouted at the assembled farmers. Noticing the salvation cadre, he suddenly became quiet, but remained glowering at his fellow-villagers from behind his spear. The farmers hastily rose and left the room, one by one.

  The cadre went out into the street with the village chief and found himself surrounded by five men with spears. "We must protect you," said Wang, and advised the cadre to leave town. The next day, instead of leaving, the cadre called a meeting and publicly scolded the village chief. The common farmers smiled, but none dared talk.

  For some reason, however, the cadre's determined speech frightened the landlord. In the night, he left the village. Before he went, he told his dog leg, Wang: "The settlement is inevitable. But keep my face. Don't settle thoroughly." Wang came to the cadre. "Look," he said, "I have your interest at heart. The landlord has gone." "Why did you let him go?" asked the cadre.

  "Never mind! Monks flee; temples remain. Rabbits go; holes remain. Let's settle his land." Summoning twenty men, Wang put guards over the landlord's house and sealed the doors. Then he said: "The landlord has a thousand mow of land, let's harvest his crop." At the same time, he slyly suggested that men be sent to arrest the landlord, but the men who went merely gave the landlord information. The cadre did not know what to do. The village chief came before the people as the enemy of the landlord, but in reality was protecting his interests.

  The cadre suggested that thirty thousand catties of grain be divided to pay the debts owed to the farmers. "No, let's take one hundred thousand catties and bust up his house," said Wang. Secretly he told the peasants: "This is enough; let's stop here." But the cadre kept pushing the peasants on. "Let's divide the land," he insisted. "If the landlord comes back, we will settle the account fairly with him."

  In the meantime, the village held an election and voted Wang out of office. Shorn of his title, the gambler sent a message to the landlord, saying: "I can't do my duty to you under present conditions." The farmers, having guaranteed not to kill him, the landlord returned. Relatives of the tenants who had starved to death met the landlord at the entrance to the village and beat him severely. Quaking, the landlord made his way back to a Speak Bitterness Meeting. A farmer told how the landlord and his dog leg, Wang, had dragged him, his wife and children to a dungeon, stripped them naked and whipped them. At this moment, Wang himself rose up and accused the landlord of other evil deeds. Betrayed and disgraced by his own bailiff, the landlord turned to Wang saying, "This is the first time I have ever learned anything from you." Then he kowtowed to the assembled farmers and begged their forgiveness, which was granted.

  In such a manner, village by village, trick by trick, the landlords' intrigues were uncovered. Learning by experience, the peasants routed the village bosses from one position after another. As they swept forward, the resolution of the tenants and the rural workers rose by rapid leaps. During the first few months of the movement, bargains were made over seizures of properties. The landlord would say: "You protect me now and I'll protect you when the Kuomintang comes." Or the tenant might say: "You give me your land and I'll give it back when the Kuomintang comes." Now, except on the borders of the fighting areas, this mask fell away. Every step of the movement grew more audacious.

  国民党方面大肆攻击土改如何如何野蛮。一位外国记者去了一趟山东蒋管区,听到某些逃亡地主诉说的所谓土改中的暴行,于是评论说:“正如太平天国的结局一样,这次革命也将因其实行恐怖政策而归于失败。”不幸这位记者并未言中,这次革命在敌人的一片哀鸣声中如火如荼地向前发展。还有一位斯克里普斯——霍华德报系的记者宣称,所谓土改运动得到广大农民群众拥护的说法纯属虚构的神话。然而正是这一神话在改变着整个华北的社会现状,广大农民群众不惜流血牺牲,使这一神话变为现实。不久以后,新当选的国民党中国的副总统李宗仁将军将在南京宣布:“我们一定要实施耕者有其田之国策!”而在这一宣布之前,国民党方面却众口一词地攻击土改如何残暴。

  这时,农民群众还要应付另一种威胁。蒋介石的特务机关得悉土地改革在农民群众内部引起了激烈的冲突后,不断派人潜入解放区,企图煽动暴乱。可是他们来得太晚了。土改运动已在华北地区深入到社会的各个领域,形势已基本上稳定。国民党特务看到他们无法煽动暴乱,甚至连类似共产党经常在国民党统治区鼓动的学生罢课游行那样的公开抗议行动也煽动不起来,于是采取其他手法进行破坏,诸如搞暗杀、投毒、派遣伪装成进步学生的特务以及施展美人计等等。

  暗杀任务是由臭名昭著的“中统”、“军统”以及地方特务机关执行的。我在解放区时,济宁市侦获了一起重大案件。国民党在六个月的时间内派来多达八批的暗杀行动小组。在此期间,计有十一人遇刺受伤。但据我所知,无一人死亡。

  特务人员携带密写在绸子上的证件、美制手枪以及作为活动经费的金条,通常伪装成商人混过封锁线。其中有一个小组,在两名毕业于美国“战略情报局”设在河南省的战时训练学校的头目的率领下,潜入济宁市后藏身于一家妓院里,图谋以此为掩护,刺杀八路军的一位纵队司令员杨勇将军。第一次他们在剧场里行刺,但未击中,刺客趁着混乱之机溜掉了。几个星期之后,他们再次在剧场行刺,仍未击中杨将军,却打伤了几名观众。凶手最后被抓获归案。

  最初,蒋介石派遣执行暗杀任务的特务,目标都集中在八路军的指挥员身上。但暗杀军事长官很难得手,尤其是当他们和部队在一起时。于是这些特务就采取与地主、特别是那些曾当过汉奸的地主勾结的办法。

  A concerted howl of anguish rose from Kuomintang territory about the barbarous land reform. A foreign correspondent went to Chiang Kai-shek's areas in Shantung and heard from fled-away landlords tales of atrocities. "The revolution," he observed, "is perishing just like the Taiping Rebellion because of terror." But the revolution was not perishing, it was growing stronger on the sorrows of its enemies. A Scripps-Howard correspondent found that it was a myth that the peasants supported the land reform. But this myth was changing all of North China society, and peasants were pouring out their blood and tears to make this legend come true. It is still some time before General Li Tsung-jen, newly elected vice-president of Kuomintang China, will get up in Nanking and say, "We must give the land to the tiller" and before that date everyone on the Kuomintang side must say that such a program is atrocious.

  In the meantime, the peasants had to face a threat from a new direction. Hearing that the land reform had created great inner conflicts among the peasantry, Chiang Kai-shek's secret service had begun to filter through into Communists?areas with the intention of stirring up revolts. But they were too late. By this time the land reform had penetrated very deeply into all sections of North China society and conditions were more or less stabilized. Finding it impossible to foment riots or even stir up public protests in the way the Communists, for example, were able to arouse student strikes and parades in Kuomintang areas, Chiang's agents had to fall back on other tactics. To accomplish their aims, behind Communist lines, they employed the following instruments: assassination, poison, student spies and women agent provocateurs.

  The assassinations were carried out by local agents, by the Bureau of Investigation and Statistics and by the Special Service Section, dread terror organs of the Chiang regime. While I was in Communist areas, the biggest case occurred in the city of Tsining where eight assassination groups penetrated the city within six months. During this time, eleven people were wounded, but as far as I know, none were killed.

  Carrying credentials written on silk, American-made pistols and gold bars for spending money, the agents filtered across the lines generally disguised as merchants. One such group, headed by two graduates of an American OSS wartime training school in Honan, having crossed the lines into Tsining, took up quarters in a house of prostitution and set out to assassinate General Yang Yun, commander of an 8th Route Army column. The first time, they sniped at General Yang in a theater, but missed. Escaping in the confusion, they returned to the theater some weeks later, again missed their target, but wounded several other people, and were finally caught. (1)

  In the beginning, Chiang's killers concentrated almost exclusively on 8th Route Army commanders. But military personnel are hard to kill - especially if in the midst of troops. So the agents began more and more to conspire with landlords - particularly those who had worked with Japanese puppets.

原注一:国民党经常登出报来,说共军某大头目已经身亡,其原因可能就是误以为暗杀成功。去年一年时间里,国民党官方宣传机构至少已经刊登过一次以下共军高官身亡或受伤的消息:林彪,东北解放军司令;陈毅,华东解放军司令;刘伯承,中原野战军司令;还有其他一些领导人也未能“幸免于难”。 (1) Similar and unsuccessful attempts at assassination probably account for the numerous incorrect stories put out by the Kuomintang of the deaths of Communist army commanders. During the last year, official Kuomintang organs have at one time or another announced the death or wounding of General Lin Piao, Communist c-in-c in Manchuria, General Chen yi, c-in-c in East China, General Liu Po-cheng and other Communist leaders.

  下面我略举一例。在河间镇有个曾经当过伪军营长的姓钟的人,手下还有几个旧部。当八路军进驻河间后,这帮人表示愿意悔改自新,所以政府对他们进行了宽大处理。距河间三十里外的国民党驻军早已看中了这帮人,视之为搞特务活动的理想人选,于是就派遣了两名特务潜入河间与他们取得了联系,劝诱他们在当地设立情报站,向河北的国民党军队提供情报。

  姓钟的那个家伙的母亲是当地的一个巫婆,专靠跳神弄鬼、卜卦算命、行巫医骗人钱财,在山区迷信的妇女当中颇有影响。在她儿子的唆使下,她搞了一个名曰“共信会”的迷信组织,专门教唆妇女打扮得花枝招展地去勾引男人。她用这种手段招引了不少男女信徒到她家里鬼混。寻欢作乐一番之后,便摆上香棠,装出一副鬼神附体、失魂落魄的样子,口中念念有词:“中央军要来,共军要走,此乃天意,天意已定,人不可违。蒋介石要坐天下。”散布了这一套“变天”的鬼话后,她又说:“谁要是加入共信会,就能消灾保命,这也是天意。”她还在家里挑动人们对八路军大肆辱骂。如果有人还是不愿入会,她就威胁说:“你可说过八路军的坏话,咱要去告你!”就是靠这种办法,她逐渐搜罗了一批门徒,特别是某些妇女还有另一个把柄握在她手里,就是她们曾经在她家里与男人乱搞过。

  为了避免引起怀疑,后来他们把聚会的地点改在彭老婆子家中。这个彭老婆子也曾有过一段人皆可夫的风流艳史,她的姘头有前伪军官兵,也有参加“共信会”聚会的登徒子。后来她觉得像自己这样年纪的人已不适宜再干这种勾当,于是就教唆她的女儿和儿媳妇杏花接客,让她们着重勾引干部。

  后来,政府成立了妇女会,还举办了妇女夜校,杏花也加入了妇女会,并经常去夜校学习。她听说八路军提倡男女平等,认真地反省了一下自己的荒唐行为,认识到不该参与她婆婆干的那些见不得人的勾当。但她还不敢马上就去找干部揭发交代,只是对婆婆带到家里来的嫖客越来越冷淡了。那些暗藏的特务很快发觉她态度有了变化,担心她会去揭发。

  一天晚上,彭老婆子把那个姓钟的和另一个特务带进他媳妇的房里,自己守在门外把风。这两个特务一进屋就用手卡住已经入睡的杏花的喉咙,杏花挣扎着叫了一声:“娘!”她婆婆在门外无动于衷。这两个家伙把一团棉花塞进杏花嘴里,使她再也喊不出声来,很快把她掐死,分尸数段,把人头藏到邻家的柴草房里,内脏扔进郭家的粪坑里,把身躯埋在村外树林里。

  彭老婆子又四处放风,说杏花跟一个八路军战士私奔了,企图以此来平息人们对杏花突然失踪的议论。渐渐地没有人再提这件事了。直到有一天,邻家长工打扫柴草房时发现了头颅。当时正赶上杏花的长兄从外地回来,他从脸上的一道伤疤认出是自己的妹妹。邻居们回忆起杏花在失踪前曾跟她婆婆发生过口角,于是断定他婆婆与这件谋杀案有关。当地政府立即派人严密监视这个老婆子的行动。最初,政府的调查人员以为这不过是一桩普通的谋杀案件。直到有一天,人们发现贴在农会布告牌上的民兵名单不翼而飞,这才感到有些蹊跷。不久,偷揭名单的人被抓获,供出那个姓钟的指使他去暗杀民兵队长,许诺事成之后给予重赏。

  姓钟的被逮捕后,进一步确定了他和那几个国民党特务与谋杀杏花案件的关系。但这个家伙什么也不肯招认。接着彭老婆子一家也按逮捕归案。

  破案的消息很快传遍全镇,镇公所门外一下子聚集了上万人。干部们一再劝导群众离去,可是众怒难以平息,人们强烈要求把那几个国民党特务和彭老婆子一家钉在墙上示众。有几个人跑到一家木匠铺里取来铁钉,当场散发给群众。干部们费尽唇舌才把群众劝走。彭老婆子家的一个丫头看到这种群情激愤的场面,心里十分惊恐,便对干部说;“咱把所知道的事全说出来,可你们得答应咱,以后咱再也不当使唤丫头。”杏花遇害的当晚,她曾听见惨叫声。经她一交代,整个案情水落石出。政府召开了有两万人参加的公审大会。谋杀杏花的首犯,那个国民党特务被判处死刑枪毙了。至于其他从犯是如何处置的,我就不得而知了,因为当我离开河间时,尚未对他们作出判决。

  As an instance of this, I came across the following. In the town of Hochien there lived a former commander of a Japanese puppet battalion, named Chun, and several of his officers. When the 8th Route Army entered the town, these men professed repentance and the government did not punish them. To Kuomintang troops ten miles away, however, they promised fertile ground for intrigue. Two Special Service men, having entered the town, persuaded Chun and his followers to set up a local SS station and send reports to the Kuomintang army in Hopei, across the border.

  Now it happened that the mother of Chun was the village witch. She called down gods from Heaven, told fortunes and cured sickness. Because of this she had a lot of influence among the superstitious mountain women. At the persuasion of her son, she organized a Common Belief Association, spreading the thought among women that they should make themselves beautiful to attract men. In this way, she got many people - both men and women - to come to her home. Between revels, the witch would pull out her incense table, go into a trance and incant: "The Central Army comes, the Red Army goes. This is Fate. Fate decides. No one can change it. This world belongs to Chiang Kai-shek." Having spread "Sky-changing" thoughts among the people, she would then say: "Whoever joins the Common Belief Association won't be killed. So it is decreed." In her home, she incited people to talk against the 8th Route Army. Then, if they still refused to join the association, she would say: "You have talked against the 8th Route Army, I will report you." In such a manner, she built up a following, especially among the town women, who were doubly bound to her because of the affairs they were having with men in her home.

  Among these women was one known as Old Lady Peng to whose house the meetings were gradually transferred in order to avoid suspicion. For a time, Mrs. Peng slept without discrimination with the ex-puppets and various other men attracted to the meetings. Feeling, however, that it was inappropriate for a woman of her age to do this, she persuaded her daughter and her daughter-in-law, a girl named Fortunate Flower, to make love with visitors - and especially to entice staff members of the government to the house.

  When the government organized a Women's Association and a Women's Evening School, Fortunate Flower joined. Hearing that the 8th Route Army thought women should have equality with men, she began to brood over her actions and think it wrong to partake of her mother-in-law's revels. Although afraid to report her secret to the government, she grew more and more cold to the men Old Lady Peng brought to the house. The SS men could not help noticing her attitude and grew afraid she might give away their secret.

  One night Old Lady Peng led Chun and an SS man to her daughter-in-law's room. While they entered, she remained outside, listening at the door. Chun and, his cohort seized the sleeping girl by the throat, but she managed to shriek out the one word: "Mother!" Old Lady Peng however, made no attempt to help Fortunate Flower. Stuffing cotton in the terrified girl's mouth, the two men quickly silenced her, then cut off her head and dismembered her body. The head they put in the outhouse of a neighbor, the intestines in the Kuo toilet and the torso they buried in the woods.

  Old Lady Peng, to quiet talk over Fortunate Flower's disappearance, said she had run off with a soldier of the 8th Route Army. The girl was quickly forgotten until one day a hired laborer, cleaning the neighbor's outhouse, found the girl's head. At this time, Fortunate Flower's brother, who had been away, returned and by a scar on the girl's cheek identified the head as that of his sister. Neighbors remembering the quarrels of the old lady with her daughter-in-law concluded that she was connected with the murder, and the government put a close watch on the old woman's movements. Government investigators were inclined to think it just an ordinary murder until one day the name list of militiamen posted on the bulletin board of the Farmers Association disappeared. The theft was traced to a farmer who revealed that the ex-puppet Chun had promised him a big reward to murder the captain of the militiamen.

  With the arrest of Chun, his connection and that of the SS men with the girl's murder was established. But Chun would admit nothing. The whole Peng household was then arrested.

  This news spread quickly through the town and a crowd of ten thousand people gathered outside the government office. The government tried to disperse them, but the crowd grew threatening and demanded that the SS men and the whole Peng family be nailed to the walls. Some men ran off to a carpenter shop, brought nails and began to distribute them among the crowd. Only after much pleading were cadres able to persuade the crowd to disperse. The sight of the angry townspeople, however, had frightened Old Lady Peng's maid who had heard Fortunate Flower shriek on the night she was killed. "I'll tell you everything I know," she said, "but the government must promise that I shall never be a maid servant again." With her confession, the whole story came out. A public trial was held before twenty thousand people. The SS man who had killed Fortunate Flower was condemned to death and executed. The fate of the others was still being decided when I left.

  由于采用暗杀的手段风险太大,国民党特务就改用投毒这种比较安全一些的手段在解放区制造混乱,动摇人心。

  我曾路过一个位于游击区的村子,由于有人在粮仓的面粉里下毒药,致使二十八名民兵中毒死亡。在这个战火纷飞的地区,据当地政府统计,先后有三百五十人中毒,其中五十三人死亡。在土改期间,坏人常往水井里投放毒药,企图以此来威胁斗争地主的积极分子。在河南游击区,我曾遇到过一个从婆家逃跑出来的小媳妇,说她婆婆对清算斗争心怀不满,就在水并里投放毒药。在其他许多地方,我发现群众对特务投毒恨之入骨。他们对国民党特务和蒋介石痛恨之深,甚至超过了对地主的仇恨。毒药所产生的这种政治效果,是它的使用者所没有料想到的。

  国民党除采取上述手段瓦解解放区民心之外,还派遣了不少特务混入知识分子和非党干部中进行策反活动。这类特务大多是一些经过专门训练的失业知识分子和贫苦学生。因为他们家住国民党统治区,所以国民党特务机关以为将他们派遣到解放区去是万无一失的。可是他们耳濡目染了解放区的情况,受到感化,不少人向边区政府投案自首。

  我曾结识过其中一位青年,至于他姓甚名谁,在此我自然不便透露。他是在日本人统治下的沈阳长大的。抗日战争激发了他的爱国之心。一九四二年,他设法搞到一张通行证,逃亡关内,几经周折总算到了蒋管区。不料刚进潼关就被国民党特务逮捕了。一听他慷慨激昂破口大骂日本鬼子,这帮混帐特务就以为他一定是个共产党员,便将他押送到西安的一所政治反省院。他在那里接受了五个月的集训后,被塞进了“三民主义青年团”,这是蒋介石为加强对中国青年的控制而设立的一个法西斯组织。此后,他又被送进戴笠主办的特务训练营受训。戴笠是当时蒋介石各种特务机关的总头目。受训完毕后,把他编入特务便衣大队,并指令他阅读大量马克思和思格斯的著作,还替他伪造了一份自传,让他模仿一个共产党员的语气书写日记,然后派他夹杂在一批从蒋管区逃亡出来的学生队伍中,混进了晋冀鲁豫边区。边区当局将他送进军政大学学习。一九四七年,军政大学学员被派下乡帮助搞土改。土改斗争使这个青年受到深刻的教育,回校后他就向校长坦白交代了他的真实身份。学校领导不仅未惩处他,而且还让他继续留在学校学习,并设法替他保密,不让这件事在学员中扩散。

 

  Since assassination is an extremely risky business, SS agents turned to poisoning as a safer means of upsetting order and terrorizing people behind the Communist lines.

  In the guerrilla regions I came across a village where twenty-eight militiamen had died from poison that had been placed in their wheat-flour stores. In the same district, where there was frequent fighting, the government claimed 350 people had been poisoned, fifty-three of them dying. During the land reform, poison was most commonly put in wells to discourage active farmers from struggling against the landlords. In Honan, I met a girl in the guerrilla regions who had fled from her husband's home because her mother-in-law had poisoned the wells during a settlement struggle. In other places, I found the peasants so incensed by the use of poison that they hated the SS, and consequently Chiang Kai-shek, worse than they did the landlords. Poison thus acted as a political agent in a way its users had not figured.

  Besides trying to break down the morale of the common people in the Liberated Areas, the Kuomintang also sent a number of spies to work among the intelligentsia and non-Communist cadres. Many of these agents were unemployed intellectuals and impoverished students whom the Kuomintang had trained in anti-Communist work. Because their families were in Kuomintang areas, the SS thought there was little risk in sending these students over to the Communists, but many were so affected by what they saw that they voluntarily confessed.

  Although I can't reveal his name for obvious reasons, I know of just such a boy. Brought up in Mukden under Japanese rule, he nevertheless was patriotically moved by China's war against Japan, and in 1942, having obtained a passport, he came south of the Great Wall and managed somehow to make his way to Chiang Kai-shek areas. Arrested at Tungkwan, he spoke so fervently against the Japanese, that cynical SS men thought he must be a Communist. They sent him to a political reform camp at Sian. After five months' training, he was put in the Three People's Principles Youth Corps, a fascist type organization formed by Chiang Kai-shek to strengthen his domination over Chinese youth. From there he was transferred to a training camp run by Tai Li, then head of all Chiang's secret service and terror organizations. Later he joined a plain-clothes corps. Still later he was brought to Sian and given special training against the 8th Route Army. Having been made to read a lot of books about Marx and Engels, having created a false biography and having also written out a diary as if he were a Communist, he joined many other students who were fleeing Chiang's areas of their own accord, and came into the Shansi-Hopei-Shantung-Honan Border Region. The authorities sent him to the military academy for study as a cadet. In 1947, the cadets were sent to help the peasants in the struggle for the land reform and the boy was much affected by what he saw. Returning to the academy, he went to the principal and confessed that he was a spy. Not only was he not punished, but he was allowed to continue his studies without the other students being told anything of his case.

  国民党特务机关意识到,要想搞垮八路军,光靠金钱是起不了多大作用的。他们了解到八路军官兵大多是单身汉,于是以为施用美人计或许能够奏效。

  由于在日本投降后,有许多过去与敌伪人员有关系的女人或地主的女儿,都想要和八路军的指战员攀上姻缘,因此,正如驻防德国的美军司令部所采取的措施一样,八路军领导机关对军人的婚姻严格审查,未经批准,不许结婚。这样一来,混入解放区的女特务要想公开地与八路军的干部或战士结婚就相当困难了。于是她们就采取了暗中勾引的方式。然而对八路军正规部队的军人,这种方式一般难以奏效,但在游击区,也偶有成功的时候。

  八路军第十旅有一个文书名叫何志川,他是一九四六年八月参的军,一九四七年夏天在山西的一次战斗中负了伤,由于他所在的部队当时还要继续向前挺进,同志们就把他安置在一位老乡家里养伤。有一天,当他在孝武村外的公路上散步时,一位年轻的妇女主动走过去和他攀谈。她留着一头短发,而且还是一双“解放脚”。她自我介绍说,她是从一百多里以外的邻县来的,到此地寻找她的丈夫,他是八路军的一位副连长。可是至今也没有找到他,有人说他在战斗中牺牲了,也有人说他在作战时失踪了。眼下盘缠也用光了,正不知如何是好。说到这里,不禁失声痛哭。何文书即答应想办法送她回家,并把她带到村公所,由村干部安置在一位老乡家里先住下来。

  自那以后,何文书经常去看望她。她一见他的面就哭哭啼啼,说她丈夫肯定是牺牲了,她宁愿留在部队上,说什么也不回老家了,家乡的日子实在过不下去,何文书看到到个妇女有文化, 这在当时的中国是十分罕见的,渐渐地对她产生了感情。她也表示钟情于他,进而提出要和他结婚。但何文书拒绝了,并对她说:“等你丈夫牺牲的消息证实以后,还要经过上级批准,咱俩才能结婚。”然而这位多情的女子纠缠不休,说爱情高于一切。

  一天下午,她对何文书说,“我知道我的丈夫确实牺牲了,家里穷得实在过不下去,我总得找个主啊。你还不明白我的情意?婚姻大事可比革命重要得多啊!”何文书一听不对头,开始产生了怀疑。他决定调查一下她的家庭情况,但表面上却装出处处都迎合她的意愿的样子。

  不久后的一天晚上,她对他说:“我知道在这儿你是不能跟我结婚的。我有个叔叔在稷山当城防司令(稷山当时在国民党统治区内),如果你脱离八路军,我叔叔就委任你当连长。”何文书听到这儿,断定这女的是特务无疑,马上把她送到区公所。在那里她很快就供认了:她以前讲的那些事全是编造的。原来她是受过国民党特务机关训练的一批女中学生之一,专门派到解放区来勾引共产党的军政干部。

  In trying to subvert the 8th Route Army, the Kuomintang intelligence realized not much could be done with money, but thought Communist soldiers might be overcome by women, as most of them were single.

  After the Japanese surrender, many girls attached to puppets or daughters of landlords tried to marry into the 8th Route Army. For this reason, authorities, just as with the American Army in Germany, would not let any soldier marry without investigating his prospective wife. Kuomintang girl spies coming into the area, therefore, found it difficult to marry cadres or soldiers openly and adopted covert methods which generally failed with the regulars, but sometimes succeeded in guerrilla areas.

  In the summer of 1947, a clerk named Ho Tze-chuan, who had joined the 10th Brigade of the 8th Route Army in August 1946, was wounded while fighting in Shansi Province. As the brigade was advancing he was left behind in a peasant's home to recover. One day while walking on a motor highway near the village of Siaowu, a girl beckoned to him. She was young, had bobbed hair and emancipated feet. Introducing herself, she told Ho she was from a county fifty miles away and that she had come to seek her husband who was a vice-commander of a company. She had not been able to find him; some people said he had been killed in battle, others said he was missing in action and now all her money was gone and she had no place to go. At the conclusion of her story, she burst into bitter tears. Promising to help her return home, the clerk brought her to the government office who found her lodging in a civilian's house.

  Here, Ho often came to see her. During these visits, the girl shed many tears, said she was sure her husband was dead and declared she would rather stay with the troops than go home where things were bad. Finding the girl quite cultured rarity in Chinese villages - Ho developed an affection for her which she reciprocated even to the extent of proposing marriage. But Ho refused. "When proof of your husband's death arrives and if the authorities say it is all right, then we can marry, but not now," he told the girl.

  But the girl was very passionate. She tried to convince Ho that love was the most powerful thing. in the world. "My husband really is dead," she said one afternoon, "I know it." And my home is so poor. I have to be supported. Can't you understand my feelings? Marriage is much more important than revolution."

  These words planted a seed of doubt in Ho's mind, and he decided to investigate the girl's home. In the meantime, he pretended to play along with the girl's desires.

  Another evening, the girl told him: "I know you can't marry me here, but my uncle is a garrison commander in Chishan [a town on the Kuomintang side]. If you can desert the 8th Route Army, my uncle will make you a company commander." Convinced that the girl was a spy, Ho took her at once to the district government where she quickly confessed that her whole story had been faked. She had been trained like many other middle-school girls and sent by the Kuomintang into Communist areas to subvert cadres and army officers.

  为了更好地理解上述事例,须知蒋介石统治下的中国是个半警察国家,在那样的社会里,流氓黑帮、秘密警察以及特工人员横行无忌,甚至可以肆意污辱妇女,即使那些有教养有文化的大家闺秀也难以幸免。抗战期间,在一次中国人为招待美国空军驾驶员而举行的宴会上,我邂逅了一位年轻的中国妇女,后来我们成了知己的好友。她告诉我,她曾被一个蒋介石的高级特工人员强奸。那个家伙不顾她父亲、一位颇有名望的专家的反对,硬逼她嫁给他。在举行婚礼的那天,蒋介石送给她五千元贺仪,她本想拒绝,可是她丈夫非要她收下不可。自那以后,她经常被迫与蒋介石的特务头子戴笠及其手下的一群狐朋狗党鬼混。我对这个女子的不幸遭遇无限同情,而当她恳求我把她藏在一架美国军用飞机上,帮助她逃离她的丈夫及其党羽时,我因自己的无能为力更感到莫名的羞愧。我所遇到的类似事情,远远不止于此。在过去的十年中,有许多男女青年沦入了中国盖世太保的魔窟,难有逃遁之望。上海滩上的社会渣滓,迄今仍在蒋介石的政府中身居要职。几年以前,当我在一家美国通讯社驻华分社工作时,有一个上海瘪三出身的包打听之类的小特务,经常闯入我们的办公室,检查我们的稿件,并对我们的中国雇员滥施淫威。在抗战期间,这个家伙与几个美国军官拉扯上了一点关系,就凭借着这点关系,再加上他会讲几句英语,很快青云直上,成了国民党统治集团的要人。我最后一次见到他是在一九四七年,在上海美国俱乐部举行的一次招待会上,他身着笔挺的上校军服,正与几位美国官员在一起谈笑风生。他与我多年未见,这次一见面就趾高气场地炫耀自己。他用脚跺了跺美国俱乐部的地板说:“这儿是老子的天下。从苏州河到南市,从外滩到麦德赫斯特路,统统都归老子管。”的确如此,那些被逮捕而落入他的魔掌的男男女女都可以为此作证。   To fully appreciate this story, it is necessary to understand that China under Chiang Kai-shek was a semi-police state with much of the power in the hands of gangsters, secret service men and special agents who exercised the most unholy rights over women, including many of the better-educated and more cultured ones. During the Japanese war, I attended a banquet given by Chinese for American pilots where I met a young Chinese woman with whom I later became quite friendly. This girl told me that she had been raped by one of the top-ranking men in Chiang's secret service and forced to marry him, even against the wishes of her father, a respected professional man. On her wedding day Chiang sent her a present of five thciusand dollars, which she said she tried to refuse, but which her husband made her accept. Thereafter, she was constantly thrown in with Tai Li, chief hatchetman for Chiang, and many of his unsavory subordinates. I cannot quite describe the pity I felt for this girl's condition nor the frustration I experienced when she begged me to sneak her onto an American Army plane and help her escape from her husband and his gangster friends. This is far from being the only case that I know of personally. Scores of girls and boys during the last ten years were delivered into the clutches of the Chinese gestapo with little hope of escaping. Men from the very dregs of Shanghai society until recently occupied responsible positions in Chiang's government. Some years ago when I worked for an American news agency in China, a Shanghai loafer with a small-time spy job used to come around to our office and go through our files and intimidate our Chinese employees. During the war, this man obtained an influence with some American Army officers, and because of this and because he could speak English, he rose in the Kuomintang hierarchy. The last time I saw him, in 1947 at a reception in the Shanghai American Club, he was dressed in a full colonel's unifbcm and hobnobbing with American officials. Seeing me for the first time in years, he was not above boasting and stamped his foot on the floor of the American Club and said, "This is my territory. I control from Soochow Creek to Nantao and from the Bund to Medhurst Road." And indeed, he did, as many arrested men and women who got in his greedy clutches can testify.

  现在言归正传。国民党在共产党后方搞的这些特务活动,往往都以惨败而告终。由于共军在前线顶住了敌人的进攻,国民党特务慑于形势不敢露头。解放区的广大农民群众由贫雇农带头,不顾地主富农的威胁,更加大胆地奋起斗争。到一九四七年冬,除游击区以外,几乎所有地区的村子都建立了农会和清算委员会。甚至中农也参加了清算地主的斗争,富农也与地主越来越疏远了。

  地主在节节败退之后,惶然四顾,只见众叛亲离,四面楚歌。绝望之中,他们拿出自己的妻女作为最后的法宝,妄图通过她们勾引农民积极分子,以缓和清算斗争的势头。这种情况非常普遍,以至成为土改运动的一大特点,甚至一直延续到今日。不论妻、妾、千金,还是侄女、外甥女,统统都被地主当作了为争夺土地而战的武器。

  在邯郸郊区的一个村子里,有个名叫王臣德的佃农,向以勤恳忠厚著称,也是土改运动中的积极分子。村里的地主曾企图用金钱收买他,想阻止他参加翻身运动,但遭到王臣德的拒绝。地主又威胁他说,“国军打过来时,咱可不会替你说话。”王臣德依然毫不动摇。地主见硬的不成,就来软的,甜言蜜语道:“过去咱亏待了你,凡是该你的,现在咱都还给你,咱俩私下把帐算清不就得了?”王臣德仍然不为所动。

  地主实在无计可施了,就叫来他的侄女,对她说:“也只好委屈你嫁给王臣德了。”他唆使侄女与王臣德睡觉,说什么,“只要他跟你睡了觉,木已成舟,不娶你也不行。”可是王臣德懂得,如果他依了地主,清算运动就搞不下去了,于是就拒绝了这桩婚事。

  地主害怕王臣德揭发他,就派了几个狗脑子把王臣德绑架了。因为王臣德是村里领导清算运动的积极分子,人们又风闻地主替他侄女说媒的事,大家马上就怀疑到地主是这次绑架事件的幕后策划者。同时大家又在村里四处进行搜查,终于在一所茅房里找到了王臣德。只见他手脚被捆绑着,嘴里塞着东西,已经奄奄一息了。人们立刻冲进地主家,把地主给抓了起来。

  But to return to our story. In general the Kuomintang's efforts behind the Communist lines ended in dismal failure. As Communist troops held out and as the Kuomintang SS burrowed into their holes, the peasants, led by the tenants and the "Long-term workers," rose still more boldly, not heeding the warning either of the landlords or the rich peasants. By the winter of 1947, outside of the guerrilla areas, scarcely a village could be found without a peasants' association or a settlement committee. Even the middle peasants joined the struggle, while the rich peasants continued to draw further away from the landlord.

  Routed from one position after another, the landlord looked around anxiously for allies, but could find none. In desperation, he fell back on the women in his family, trying to use them as an influence among the active farmers to soften the settlement. This became so widespread that it stamped its character on the land reform and continues even to this day. Wives, concubines, daughters and nieces were indiscriminately thrown into the battle for land.

  In a village on the outskirts of Hantan, there was a tenant named Wang Chen-teh who was very active in the agrarian movement, and who had a good reputation in the village as a thorough and painstaking worker. His landlord tried to bribe Wang with money not to join the "turning-over" movement. Wang refused. "If the Kuomintang troops come, I won't protect you," threatened the landlord. Wang remained adamant. Seeing that threats failed to move his tenant, the landlord tried soft words. "In the past," he said, "I have wronged you and I want to return what I owe you. Let you and I make a private settlement." Still the tenant would not agree.

  In desperation, the landlord called his niece and said: "You'll have to marry him." At the same time, he persuaded his niece to go to bed with the tenant, saying, "Even if he doesn't want you, he'll have to marry you after sleeping with you." But the tenant, realizing the settlement movement would come to a standstill if he gave in to the landlord, refused to marry the niece.

  Afraid Wang would tell the story around the village, the landlord called his followers to kidnap the tenant. Since Wang had been very active in leading the settlement, and since it was rumored that the landlord had tried to find a go-between for his niece, the people immediately suspected the landlord was behind the kidnaping. Searching the village, they found Wang bound and gagged inside a closet and nearly dead. They immediately raided the landlord's home and arrested him.

  在平汉铁路线上有一个名叫高央的村子。有一次,村里的地主分别结农会的主席和民兵指导员各送了一万元的礼。几天以后,他故意叫他的老婆到村公所去揭发,“俺男人可不是个好东西,他想要收买你们。”她就这样装出一副非常“开明”的样子,极力接近农民运动中的积极分子。她今天跟这个干部睡觉,明天又与另一个农会委员鬼混,弄得干部之间互相争风吃醋,无法议事,清算运动也搞不下去了。

  武城县有一个地主名叫李春林,家中有一妻和一个十八岁的闺女。面对着日益高涨的农民运动的浪潮,他感到束手无策,于是逼着闺女去勾引一个农民运动中的雇农骨干分子。一天,他把这个雇农请到家里吃饭。他和他老姿在一张大桌上吃,让这个雇农和他闺女在下面一张小桌上吃。过了几天,他又让这个雇农和他闺女在另一间屋里吃。不到半个月,这个雇农就和地主的女儿睡在一起了。

  一天晚上,地主女儿偎在这个雇农的怀里说:“眼下你要的东西部有了,你就别再干雇农团主席了。往后也别再搞啥斗争了,你缺啥只管向俺要好了。”这个雇农听进了她的话,渐渐地对农民运动不感兴趣了。在干部会上,一当有人提出要干某件事时,他就说:“算了吧!咱们现在有吃有穿了,还斗个啥呀?”

  其他的贫雇农对他起了疑心,开始注意他的行踪,发现他跟地主打得火热。他们就质问他:‘你为啥近来工作不积极,却去跟李春林打得火热?为啥你过去连话都不敢对他闺女说,现在倒好,跟她勾勾搭搭起来了?你过去受尽地主压迫,现在忘本啦?”

  在多方面的压力之下,这个雇农终于承认了他同地主的闺女睡过觉。雇农团立即把地主的闺女叫来。“你为啥跟我们的同志睡觉?”大家质问她。“那那是俺爹逼着俺干的。”她回答说。大伙儿一听,不由得喊道:“咱们可不能上地主的当!决不能让地主拿钱收买咱们!决不让地主拿娘们拉咱们下水!”

  In Kaoyi village near the Peiping-Hankow Railway, a landlord sent a gift of ten thousand dollars to the head of the Farmers Association and another one to the director of the militia. A few days later he told his wife to go to the government and say: "My husband is no good, he is trying to bribe you." Pretending, in this way, to be very "enlightened," the landlord's wife got close to the farmers most active in the peasant movement. One day, she would make love with one farmer, and the next day she would make love to another staff member of the peasants' association. As a result, each farmer became jealous of the other, no one could agree on anything and the movement came to a halt.

  In Wucheng County, a landlord named Li Tsun-lien, lived with his wife and eighteen-year-old virgin daughter. Finding himself helpless in the face of the swelling peasant movement, he ordered his daughter to play up to one of his tenants who was taking a prominent part in the movement. Inviting the tenant to dinner, he ate at a high table with his wife, and placed the tenant with his daughter at a small table at his feet. After a few days, he had the daughter and the tenant eat in a separate room. Within two weeks, the tenant was sleeping with the daughter.

  Lying in his arms, the girl said to the tenant, "You now have everything you want so there is no need for you to continue as chairman of the Workers Committee. Don't struggle any more. I can give you anything you lack." This seemed like a good suggestion to the tenant and gradually he lost his interest in the peasant movement. In meetings, when others proposed certain acts, he would say: "We have millet and clothes to wear. What's the use of struggling any further."

  Becoming suspicious, his fellow-tenants followed him and saw that he was on very good terms with the landlord. "Why?" they asked, "are you working so little nowadays and how is it you are so friendly with Li Tsun-lien? And how is it that his daughter, with whom you never dared speak before, is now on such friendly terms with you? You were oppressed before by the landlord, weren't you? What's the matter with you now?"

  Pressed on all sides, the tenant finally admitted that he was sleeping with the landlord's daughter. The Workers Committee immediately asked the daughter to come to a meeting. "Why are you sleeping with our comrade?" they asked. "Because my father made me," she said.

  The meeting broke up with the shouting of slogans: "We shouldn't be flattered by landlords. We shouldn't be bought by money. We shouldn't be lured by women."

 

  在中国,每个村子里通常总有个把浪荡女人,大多是有夫之妇,为了淫乐或是为了钱财在村里乱搞男女关系。这种女人被称为“破鞋”。可想而知,她们往往是一村之中最妖艳的女人。我曾遇见过一个这样的女人,名叫三花。关于她的风流艳史,我曾听说过下面这样一个故事。

  这个村里有个名叫卢慕安的地主,有一天,他对三花说,只要她设法败坏农会主席的名誉,他答应给她五千元钱作为报偿。她后来告诉我说,因为当时她太穷了,“思想”也不好,所以就同意了。她找了个机会对那位农会主席说,她有要事请他到她家里去帮助解决。他应邀而至。三花备了点酒,还下了点面条款待他。饭后她又挽留他在她家过夜。盛情难却,于是他欣然爬上了她的热坑。云雨方罢.三花光着身子跑到街上,大喊大叫起来;“农会主席强奸人哪!”她一路喊到村公所去告状。第二天,村干部召开了全村群众大会。会上,由农会主席与她当面对质,三花招架不住了,不得不供认了地主如何收买她去拉农会主席下水。尽管尚未构成强奸罪,但这位农会主席还是被群众罢免了。就他干的这些丑事,已足以使他在群众中名誉扫地了。据三花自称,那五千元的赏金她也未捞到手。

  地主还利用自己的小老婆来败坏地方干部(即在村公所任职的当地农民)的名誉。王村一个地主的小老婆有一次把一个雇农骗到她家的厨房里,急忙脱下自己的裤子,放开嗓子大叫有人要强奸她。地主应声而出,一直把这个雇农拽进村里召开的大会的会场里。就如同许多这类事件一样,最后,地主的诡计被戳穿了。

  地主们妄图牺牲自己女眷的肉体来阻挡这股强大的社会力量的奔腾向前,这种卑劣的手段是他们的垂死挣扎。甚至他们的家庭成员也起来反抗他们了。在豫北的一个村子里,当农民群众开始组织起来闹翻身时,地主为了防备有人来伤害他,逼着他的儿媳妇站在房顶上望风把哨,不管天晴下雨,天天如此。后来,眼见农民群众的力量愈来愈壮大,这个地主就扔下妻子和儿媳妇,只身潜逃了。几个星期后,八路军开进来,农会号召大家把所有的武器都献出来,谁备组织民兵。当一个农民来到地主家里征收武器时,地主矢口否认她家里藏有武器。地主的儿媳妇早就恨透了地主公婆,立即站出来当面揭发地主婆说:“哼,你敢说没有!”一边说一边按倒她婆婆,扒下她的裤子,从她两腿之间抽出来一支手枪,交给那位感到十分惊讶的农民。地主力量的最后庇护所,竟在女人的胯下。

  在解放区各地,所有的地主豪绅都是在经过这样一番枉然挣扎之后,方才纷纷败下阵来。到了一九四七年春天,比较识时务的地主意识到,要想继续保留他们的财产已是不可能的了,也只好无可奈何任花落去。到同年夏天,除游击区的以外,几乎所有本地区的地主都被打倒了,也就是说,以往依靠地租为生的人,从此必须自食其力,再也不能过剥削阶级的生活了。这次农民运动来势异常迅猛,在晋冀鲁豫边区,不到一年的时间内,被打倒的地主计有二万一千人之多。尽管地主阶级耍尽了诸如暗杀、美人计之类的种种阴谋诡计,然而这场斗争还是以他们的失败而告终。

  In every Chinese villiage there is generally at least one woman - usually married - who sleeps with other men, either for pleasure or for money. Such a woman is known as a "broken shoe." Quite often, as might be expected, they are among the most charming women in the village. I met one such woman, named Third Blossom, about whom farmers told me the following story.

  Lu Mu-an, the landlord of this village, promised Third Blossom five thousand dollars if she would disgrace the chairman of the Farmers Association. Because, as she later told me herself, she was very poor and had "bad thoughts," she agreed. Telling the chairman that she had a serious problem, she invited him to her home to settle it. When he arrived, Third Blossom prepared some noodles and a little wine. Then she asked the chairman to stay the night. Nothing loath, the chairman leaped into bed. As soon as they had finished making love, Third Blossom ran naked into the street and shouted: "Oh, you chairman of the Farmers Association, you have raped me!" Still shouting, she ran straight to the subdistrict office and made a report to the cadres who summoned a meeting of the whole village next day. During the meeting, Third Blossom, when confronted with the accusations of the chairman, broke down and admitted she had been bribed by the landlord to disgrace the chairman. Though there was no question of rape, the chairman was dismissed by his fellow-farmers, who thought him disgraced enough as it was. Third Blossom, so she said, did not get the five thousand dollars.

  Finally, landlords used their concubines to discredit local cadre (farmers holding village office). In Wangtsun, a landlord's concubine lured a tenant into the kitchen, hastily pulled down her pants and yelled rape at the top of her lungs. The landlord then hauled the tenant before a village meeting. As usual the duplicity was discovered.

  These crude efforts to stop the onsweep of a mighty social force with the bodies of their womenfolk were the dying gasps of the andlords. Even their own families began to turn against them. In a village in northern Honan, while farmers were organizing themselves, a landlord made his daughter-in-law stand on the roof and keep watch, rain or shine, for anyone who might be coming to kill him. As the farmers grew stronger, the landlord fled, leaving his wife and daughter-in-law alone in the house. Some weeks later, the 8th Route Army having arrived in the city, the Farmers Association asked the people for all their weapons so they could form a militia. When a peasant came to her home, the landlord's wife denied she had any arms. "Oh, yes you have!" said the daughter-in-law who hated both the landlord and his wife. With these words, she pounced on her mother-in-law, tore off her pants, ripped out a pistol concealed between the woman's legs and handed it to the astonished peasant. Such were the final resting places of the landlord's power - between a woman's legs.

  Within the Liberated Areas, all the lords of the land collapsed everywhere in the same feeble manner, with the same futile gestures. By the spring of 1947, the more farsighted landowners saw they could not hope to keep their estates. They did not even try to. By summer, almost all the landlords except in the guerrilla regions, had been eliminated - that is to say, all those who had lived off land rents were no longer able to do so, but had to till their own soil. The upheaval was so great and so swift that in the Shansi-Hopei-Shantung-Honan Border Region alone, twenty-one thousand landlords were eliminated within less than a year. The rural possessing classes, despite their murders, their intrigues and the seductive activities of their women, had lost the battle.