第八章 进入游击区
 
CHAPTER VIII

INTO GUERRILLA COUNTRY
第三十四节 三八节
34. Women's Day

  我们抵达彭城时,正值国际妇女节的前夕,大街小巷挤满了邻近各村来的妇女和姑娘们。当晚在露天舞台为妇女们举行专场文娱晚会,演出歌剧《白毛女》。

  至少有两千人冒着春夜的刺骨严寒前来观看演出。他们之中有县里的干部、烧窑的工人、供销社职员、还有包着头巾的老大娘、穿制服的女干部和衣著朴素的农村姑娘。人们在临时搭起的戏台前围坐成一个巨大的半圆圈。场上放的几条长板凳,早已坐满了捷足先登的观众。大部分人都是席地而坐。小孩子们坐在最前面,正对着舞台。最后面的人就站在小土丘上观看。观众中夹杂着背枪的民兵,有的还上了刺刀,刀锋在汽灯照耀下闪着寒光。

  很难想象还有比这更具有民主气氛的集会了:演出不用售票,场内也未设特座、专座之类。紧靠着舞台坐的孩子们看得费劲一些,不时有一些孩子踩在旁人的肩头上观看。这样一来,就把后面观众的视线挡住了,后面的人便嚷嚷开了。每当发生这样的纠纷,就有一个演员走过来,手里拿着一棍细长棍,在那些闹事的孩子头上轻轻点一点,大声喝道:“小朋友坐好!”有时台上的汽灯忽然灭了,舞台工作人员便您来一架梯子,爬上去使劲给灯打气,直到重放光明。 演员们若无其事地又接着往下演。

  开演之前,一个穿制服的大干部登上舞台,手拿喇叭筒对观众高声讲解剧情大意。这完全是多此一举,因为即使对我来说,故事情节也没有任何难懂之处。这个女的长得象根棍子一样又高又瘦,一头直垂的黑发,脸庞清秀而苍白,戴一副玳瑁架的眼镜。她态度毫不文雅,说话象跟人吵架一样,这使我想起了在漫画中常见的披着长发的过激派分子,这也是我在边区所邂逅的唯一具有这种外表的人物。

WE HAD arrived in Pengcheng on the eve of International Women's Day and all the streets were filled with women and girls from the neighboring villages. In honor of these women, an evening performance of White Haired Woman was staged that night in a field in the open air.

  The night was bitterly cold, yet a crowd of at least two thousand people came to see the play. County officials, workers from the pottery ovens, clerks from the co-operatives, old peasant women in shawls, girls in uniform and young farm girls in simple jackets and pants all crowded in a great semicircle around the improvised stage which was lit by a glaring pressure lamp. There were a few benches on which some lucky early-comers sat, but most reclined on the ground, the children down front, directly in front of the stage, with others standing in the rear on small elevated humps of ground. Here and there in the audience one could see militiamen with rifles, some of them equipped with bayonets which glinted fitfully in the light.

  It would be hard to imagine a more democratic gathering. No tickets were sold, there was no dress circle and no preferred seats. The children in the front, directly below the stage, however, had a hard time seeing. Every once in a while they would climb on one another's shoulders to get a better look at the stage. This blocked the view of those behind who set up a critical clatter. Whenever this happened, one of the actors would reach out with a long stick and bang the offending child gently on the head while yelling out in a loud voice, "Children behave yourself." Sometimes the stage lamp went out. Then a stagehand would fetch a stepladder onto the stage and pump vociferously at the lamp for a few moments until the illumination was restored. Afterward, the actors would pick up their lines as if nothing had happened.

  Before the performance, a girl in uniform mounted the stage and through a megaphone shouted out to the audience a synopsis of the play - something entirely unnecessary as, even to me, the story was abundantly clear. The girl had a long, thin body, like a stick, straight black hair, a pale, thin face, and she wore horn-rimmed glasses. Ugly of manner, she was belligerent in voice and she reminded me of the standard caricature of a long-haired radical - the only one of such appearance, incidentally, that I saw in 8th Route Army territory.
  《白毛女》是一出悲剧性的歌剧,但也有不少插科打浑。可是每当观众发出笑声时,那个女干部就跳上台去,对着喇叭筒大叫,“别笑!”我对此很反感,就对陈翻译表示了我的意见。但他不以为然地说:“我认为我们有必要提高人民群众的觉悟,教育他们同情别人的不幸遭遇。”我回答说“也许你们应该从人民群众那里学到某些东西。这出戏演的是他们亲身的经历,他们比别人更清楚什么是可笑的。如果你们不让他们笑,你们就应该修改剧本。”

  其实这个剧本已很成熟,无需多加修改。它是由许多作家集体创作的,并广泛地吸收了农民群众的意见,进行过多次修改。我在解放区所观看过的戏剧中,这是最好的,大概也是最负盛名的。据我之见,共产党戏剧的弊病,尚不在于一味追求宣传效果,而是情节过于庞杂,每一情节都未能充分展开,因此戏剧效果大为减色。同时,只偏重于情节和主题, 而忽略了人物的塑造,因此剧中角色往往呆板干瘪,毫不生动。

  但《白毛女》却不落此俗套。在这里介绍其故事情节,当然乏味,可是舞台演出却感人至深。可想而知,剧中的主角是一个佃户的闺女,因为她爹还不起地主的年关债,地主就派狗腿子把她抢去当丫头抵债。在地主家里,她经常被念经拜佛的地主婆毒打。一天夜里,地主少爷把她强奸了。当地怀孕后(在舞台上演员果真大腹便便),决心要在全村人面前控诉地主对她的糟踏。地主少爷正准备娶亲,担心这样一来会误了他的大事,于是就派狗腿子把她捆绑起来,关进一间黑屋里,打算杀人灭口。地主家有个女佣人,多年前与那丫头有着相同的遭遇,也是被地主抓来抵债的。当天夜里,她把那丫头给放跑了。地主少爷闻讯马上带着狗腿子去追赶。逃亡的丫头被逼得走投无路,只好躲进了深山。

  姑娘唱着悲愤的哀歌,藏匿在高山岩洞之中。不久后,一个婴孩在这荒山野岭上呱呱落地了。非人的生活使姑娘的头发渐渐变白了。后来,她的家乡解放了,游击队把她从深山里救出来。村里召开诉苦大会,地主少爷被押进会场,村民们讨论如何惩治他。这时,我万没有想到,台下的许多观众激动地站了起来,齐声喊叫;“杀!杀!毙了他毙了他!”地主少爷表示愿意悔改,只挨了一顿痛打就被释放了。地主的土地分给了贫苦的农民,那个姑娘也分得一份,甚至给地主本人也留了一份。

  尽管故事情节过于夸张,但剧中并未出现荒诞不经的场面,由于演员感情真挚,再加上配歌和舞台效果运用得当,因而产生了极大的感染力。据我了解,观众中有许多妇女都有类似剧中人那样的身世,因而剧中悲惨的情景在她们之中引起了特别强烈的共鸣。我看见她们时时用衣袖拭眼泪。不论是年老的还是年少的,不论是农民还是知识分子,都禁不住凄然泪下。坐在我身旁的一位老大娘,一边看一边哭泣出声,直到终场。

  White Haired Woman was a tragic melodrama, but in certain spots it was deliberately funny. Yet when the audience laughed this girl mounted the stage and shouted through her megaphone: "Don't laugh." I told Mr. Chen I did not approve of this practice, but he could not agree with me. "I think it is necessary for us to improve the people and teach them sympathy for the suffering of others," he said. "Perhaps you have something to learn from the people," I replied. "This play is about their own experiences and they know what is funny better than anyone else. If you don't want them to laugh, you should change the play."

  Actually, the play needed little changing. Written co-operatively by a great number of writers and constantly rewritten on the advice of farmers, it was by far the best of all the plays that I saw in the Liberated Areas, and was probably the best known. The trouble with most Communist plays, to my way of thinking, was not that they were propaganda, which they undoubtedly were, but that they were too crowded with events, developing none of them fully, so that most of the dramatic impact was lost. Then, the emphasis being on events and themes and not on people, all the characters tended to become cardboard types and not living human beings.

  Nothing of the sort, however, could be said of White Haired Woman, a story which, no doubt, sounds trite when told here, but was very moving when performed on the stage.

  The heroine of the play, as might be expected, is the daughter of a tenant farmer. Seized by the dog legs of the landlord when her father cannot pay his New Year's debts, she is forced to become a maidservant in the landlord's home. There she is constantly beaten by the landlord's wife, a devout, but humorous old Buddhist, and finally raped on a dark night by the landlord's son. Made pregnant (her belly becomes very big, indeed, on the stage) she threatens to reveal her shame to the whole village. The landlord's son, who is about to be married, and the dog leg bind up the girl, throw her in a closet and make ready to murder her. An old woman servant, who many years ago had been brought to the landlord's home under much the same circumstances, releases the girl who flees in the night. The landlord's son and the dog leg pursue her into the mountains.

  Wailing a defiant song, the girl evades capture by taking refuge in a rocky glen where she gives birth to a baby, her hair turning white in the process. She is adopted by guerrillas who eventually free her home village and bring the landlord's son before a Speak Bitterness Meeting. The villagers debate what to do with the son. At this juncture, to my utter surprise, many members of the audience stood up in great excitement, shouting "Sha! Sha! Kill him! Kill him!" The boy, showing repentance, however, is merely beaten. The land is divided, the girl gets her share and even the landlord his.

  Though melodramatic in the extreme, this play avoided being ludicrous and generated a great amount of excitement, because of the sincerity of the actors and because of a few technical tricks, principally the use of a number of songs. The bitter reality of the play was not lost on the women in the audience many of whom, as I found out, had undergone similar experiences. At several points in the play I saw women, old and young, peasant and intellectual, wiping tears from their eyes with the sleeves of their jackets. One old lady near me wept loudly through nearly the whole play.

  坦白地说,我自己也同那些妇女一样,被这出戏(或者说被观众的反应)感动得几乎要哭了。的确,共产党的戏剧作品都是感人至深的。我在冶陶时,正逢三天集市,曾看见同时上演五台戏。舞台是临时搭的,道具少得可怜,服装倒是不成问题,因为剧中人物大多是普通老百姓。男女演员都挤在舞台后面一个小遮篷里化妆,面粉和润滑油就是他们所用的化妆品。除了军政机关办了几个专业文工团之外其余都是各村自己组织的业余剧团。其中特别出色的,每逢集市还到县里各地巡回演出。他们除了车旅和膳食费以外,不取分文。在中国,直至最近,仍然如同莎土比亚时代一样,剧中的女角都是由男人扮演的。但在解放区却不然,女角一般都由女性担任。昔日轻易不出家门的小脚妇女,居然也登台扮演放了足的女角,在舞台上蹒跚迈步。看到这样的情景的确使人深受感动。

  第二天,时值妇女节,在广场上举行了庆祝大会。大约有五、六十个妇女,手拿花束和五彩缤纷的莲湘翩翩起舞。这种舞蹈的意义有点象美国的五朔节花柱舞,但表现形式各有异趣。这些舞蹈谈不上什么健美,更无战斗气派可言,但却非常纯朴,正因其纯朴,所以十分好看。演员们并不焰耀自己的体型,不故意托高乳峰和展示大腿,不卖弄风骚,也毫无赞颂民族或阶级理想的意图。整个场面看起来更象是一次联欢会,是一次妇女力量大检阅 ,有如纳粹德国或苏俄所搞的那样。

  表演完毕后,妇女们六、七人一组涌到大街上扭秧歌,人们有的吹唢呐,有的打钹伴奏。在解放区,最让人开心的事莫过于看扭秧歌。不论是看过这种舞蹈并试着扭过几下的外国人,还是在大街上扭过秧歌的青年男女,都是这么说;甚至那些起初一看扭秧歌就直皱眉头的成年人,也是这么说,因为后来当他们也加入秧歌的行列时,才发现其乐无穷。扭秧歌无需特定的舞伴,只要绕着圈,或是组成类似康茄舞的队形就可以扭起来。小学生们放学后,也常常一路扭着秧歌回家。

  Frankly, I was almost as much affected by this play (or by the audience's reaction to it) as were the women. As a matter of fact, the Communists' whole theatrical effort was extremely impressive. While at Yehtao, during a three-day fair, I saw as many as five plays going at one and the same time. The stages were makeshift affairs and the properties the scantiest. Costumes, however, provided no problem as most all the plays concerned everyday people. The actors and actresses made up under a small awning in back of the stage, using flour and axle grease to produce the effects they wanted. Though there were some professional troupes, run by the army or the party, most were groups organized by the villages themselves. If a village had a particularly good troupe it wandered about the county performing on different fair days, without pay and, only receiving transportation and food for their services. Until very recently in China, as in Shakespeare's time, all women's parts were played by men, but in the Communist areas, female leads were generally played by women. And it was quite a moving thing to see women with bound feet, who hitherto had not been allowed outside the home, toddling around the stage and acting out the part of an emancipated female.

  The next morning being Women's Day, a festival was held on the town's fairgrounds where fifty or sixty women performed a series of group dances with flowers and gaily colored sticks. The spirit of the dances, though the appearance was far different, was somewhat like our Maypole dances. There was nothing particularly athletic about them, certainly nothing militaristic; they were very simple and for that reason all the more impressive. There was no glorification of the body, no upstanding breasts, no sturdy thigh displays, no ruddy, glowing Womanhood, nor any attempt to glorify a national or a class ideal. The whole affair seemed more like a social gathering than an exhibition of mighty women, such as might have taken place in Nazi Germany or Soviet Russia.

  At the end of the performance, the women in groups of six and seven, each accompanied by a man piping on a flute and another one beating cymbals, came tripping down the streets of the town, dancing the Yangko.

  The Yangko was perhaps the most enjoyable thing to be seen in the Liberated Areas. So said all the foreigners who saw these dances and tried to imitate them and so said the youth and maidens themselves as they danced in circles on the strects, and so said even the grown ups who had first frowned on the dance, but later joined in the fun themselves and found them most pleasant! The Yangko was danced without any specific partner, either in a circle or in a kind of conga line which primary-school boys and girls often formed on the street as they came home from school.
  这时,一群妇女来到那条狭长而又曲折的大街上,其中有五、六岁的女孩,也有五、六十岁的老大娘。她们分成三、五人一组,等待着伴奏的音乐开始。一个靠墙站着的独眼农民,把唢呐举到嘴边吹起一支曲子,然后一个男人跟着拉起了胡琴,一个男孩打起了钹。随着音乐的启奏,一个十来岁的小姑娘庄严地朝周围的同伴们扫了一眼,提起两肘,双臂一扬,象个皮球一样向前弹出去,开始扭起来了。她向前轻走两步,扭动着的身躯微微弯向前,对于街上的骡车和停下来观看的人,她好象毫不在意,径直朝他们扭去。突然,她双手插腰,一只脚尖着地停一下,身子一仰,重心落在另一只脚跟上转回身来,脚踩实地,停立一秒钟,接着以一个优美的动作翻转身体,再往前扭去。很快,其他的姑娘们也模仿她的舞姿,跟在她后面扭起来。有的动作笨拙,有的舞姿优美,有的小脚妇女扭起来摇摇晃晃,有的穿着绣花鞋的天足少女扭起来步履轻盈。整条长街上到处都是一圈一圈跳舞的姑娘们。那个吹唢呐的人这时在翩翩起舞的姑娘们身边蹲了下来,昂首欢奏,那只好眼睁得溜圆。音乐停下后,姑娘们相对微微一笑,把散到额前的头发往后一按,又继续沿着长街朝前扭去。

  从某种意义上来说秧歌舞是中国革命性质的象征,因此我才在此不惜笔墨加以描述。秧歌的历史源远流长,但千百年来一直受着封建势力的压制。蒋介石夫妇提倡孔孟之道,发起“新生活”运动,严禁在城市内公开跳舞。这种强加在中国人民头上的专横而又完全不必要的禁令,也促使许多中国人看清了蒋氏夫妇的昏庸无道。

  共产党却大力提倡和扶植民间舞蹈,满足人民群众对文化娱乐的迫切需要。虽然生活在如此动荡不安的时代,人们仍然希冀得到鼓舞,向往新的生活,焕发青春,这是何等的奇妙。从这一点来看,中国革命如同任何其他革命运动一样,是值得称道的。希望尽情地跳舞、唱歌,忘却忧愁,追求理想,青春再度,这一切就如同土地改革一样,也是革命的一部分。可以毫不夸张地说,秧歌的意义也正在于此。

  Just now, a group of women, from six to sixty, had entered the narrow winding main street. Separating into individual groups, they waited for the music to begin. A one-eyed farmer leaned against the side of a house, raised a flute to his lips and piped a note, then a man with a fiddle joined him, and finally a small boy with a pair of cymbals. At the beat of the music a girl of about ten years looked sideways at her companions with a grave air, suddenly crooked her elbows, swung her arms from her sides, bounded forward like a ball, and launched herself in the dance. She glided forward two steps, her swaying body bent slightly at an angle, and, seeming not to notice the mule cart or the spectators that bad paused to watch, was dashing straight at them, when suddenly, arms akimbo, she stopped short on the toes of one foot, rocked back on her heel then all the way back on the other foot, stood so a second, then gracefully inclining her body to the other side, sprang forward again. Swiftly following in the circuitous wake described by their leader came the other girls, some awkward, some graceful, some swaying on bound feet, some jumping light-footedly on full-sized flowered slippers. Down the whole length of the narrow thoroughfare circles of girls were revolving in the dance. The flute player, now squatting on his haunches beside the girls' twinkling feet, raised his reed toward the sky and piped merrily on, his one good eye fixed in an unwinking stare. When the music ceased, the girls smiled gravely at each other, brushed back loose wisps of hair, then moved further up the street to repeat the same performance all over again.

  I have spent perhaps more words than necessary to describe this dance, because it was symbolic in a way of the nature of the Chinese Revolution. A dance many centuries old, the Yangko had been suppressed by rural puritanism. In the same way, Chiang Kai-shek, reviving Confucianism, and Madame Chiang, instituting a New Life Movement, ordered public dancing in the cities to be suppressed. In thus forcing arbitrary and entirely unnecessary codes on their own countrymen, Chiang and his wife became superfluous in the eyes of many Chinese.

  The Communists, however, in encouraging the revival of dancing, satisfied a great and heartfelt need of the people for artistic expression. It is a curious fact that most people, especially in times of world-shaking doubt, have a desire to be inspired, to start their lives over again, to become young once more. In this respect, the Chinese Revolution, like any revolution, was memorable. The yearning to dance, to sing, to forget, to dream, to become once more like children became as much a part of the revolution as did the land reform. That, without too much exaggeration, was part of the significance of the Yangko.