第九章 人民战争
 
CHAPTER IX
 

THE PEOPLE'S WAR

第三十七节 同胞兄弟,两个营垒
37. Brother Against Brother

  我来到安阳的时候,反对地主和国民党的斗争已经如火如荼地开展起来。每个奋起自卫的村庄,自然都想争取相邻的村庄也起来,实行联防。这样一来,联防层层扩大。很快,各个村庄之间建立了相互合作的关系,一村有困难四方来支援,肩并肩地同可恨的地主兼土匪斗争,有时甚至还同蒋军作战。然而,敌人凭借大量美国武器形成的钢铁之环仍然包围着这些战斗村,厄运时时威胁着它们。这是一场地主对农民、土匪对农民、有时是哥哥对同胞弟弟的斗争。

  晚上,我总是同农民坐在一起听他们讲述村里的故事。这些故事多数都是惨不忍闻的。他们叙述时,话语平淡而单调,缺乏生动性和真实感,但都很悲切。一对同胞兄弟站在敌对营垒相互斗争的故事给我留下了不可磨灭的印像。

 

BY THE time I arrived in Anyang, the rising against the landlords and the Kuomintang was spreading like an all-consuming fire. Every village that rose to defend itself, as a matter of course, had to seek to get its neighbor to do the same. Thus, ever new peripheral and protecting groups were built up. Soon the villages learned to cooperate, to succor each other in distress, to fight shoulder to shoulder against the hated bandits and the landlords and even sometimes against the soldiers of Chiang Kai-shek. Yet the steel ring of arms - many of them American, was close about the rising villages. The shadow of destiny was like a brand on men. It was landlord against peasant, bandit against farmer, sometimes brother against brother.

  At night I used to sit among the peasants and listen to the stories they told of their villages. Mostly they were brutal stories, told in a flat monotone that failed to convey any sense of life or reality, but always they seemed somewhat sad. One story that has clung to my memory concerns two brothers who fought each other on opposite sides of the lines.

  这兄弟俩是一位姓王的石匠的儿子。王家住在水冶镇的东关。这个贫苦人家,大门对着广阔的田野,紧靠通往安阳的大路,东边是陡峭的峡谷,一直伸向平原,西边是太行山。

  兄弟俩那是在这个环境里长大的。但是,成年后他俩为人很不一样,邻居们部说他们不像是一个娘养的。老大东子长着一张四方脸、两只大眼睛和一个高大的鼻子。他勤奋、遇事冷静,是一个老实、埋头干活的二十五岁青年,在一家卷烟广辛勤地做工,挣钱养活自己心爱的妻子。

  尽管大儿子有着这样好的品德,王家还是喜欢小儿子西则。这小子游手好闲,吃喝嫖赌无所不为。他是恶霸地主柯增强的狗腿子。他绑架诈取赎金,偷东西,还强占别人土地。他高兴的时候给父母带回些礼物,为此,父母认为他是个孝子。

  西则和他娘都信神,所以母子关系特别密切。每逢初一、十五,母子俩便给泥菩萨烧香上供。东子从不参加这些活动,他讨厌弟弟,对保佑弟弟的神表示鄙夷。

  兄弟俩经常吵架。东子不齿于弟弟搞的那些不正当的勾当,痛恨地主恶霸在日本人占领期间残害许多人命的暴行。他不堪忍受这种可怕的生活,便逃到山里。在那里,八路军在一家卷烟厂给他另外找了个工作。因为他是水冶土生土长的,所以当了人民武装委员会的委员。在日本投降前不久,他带领游击队回到水冶,在攻城时甚至还投了几颗手榴弹。就在他进城的时候,他的弟弟同地主和土匪一起跑了。

  The brothers were sons of a stone worker named Wang, who lived in the east corner of Suiyeh. The gate of their poor home opened out to the countryside. Close by ran the Anyang city road. To the east, a series of steep ravines descended to the plains. On the west rose the Taihang Mountains.

  In this environment, the two brothers grew up side by side. But they grew so differently that neighbors said they could not have been born from the same mother. Tungse, the elder brother, was an earnest, hardworking man of twenty-five, with a square face, big eyes and a large nose. Sober and industrious, he worked hard in a cigarette factory to support his wife of whom he was very fond.

  Despite the virtues of their elder son, the Wangs preferred the younger boy - Sitze. Sitze was a loafer. He gambled, drank and spent much of his time with whores. A follower of the bandit landlord Ko Tseng-chiang, he kidnaped people for ransom, stole goods and plundered land. When flush, he brought his parents gifts and for this reason they thought him a filial son.

  Sitze and his mother were especially close because both believed in gods. On the first and fifteenth of every month, mother and son burned incense before earthen idols. Tungse never joined these rites because he despised his brother and scorned any gods who might listen to him.

  The brothers constantly quarreled. Tungse did not approve of his brother's shady transactions nor of the atrocities that were being committed by the landlords ho shot and killed many people during the Japanese occupation. I/liable to bear the grim life any longer, he fled back into the mountains where the 8th Route Army found him another job in a cigarette factory. Being a native of Suiyeh he became a counselor of the Armed People's Committee. Just before the Japanese surrender, he led the guerrillas back to Suiyeh and even threw hand grenades into the city during the attack. As he was entering the city, his brother was leaving with the landlords and the bandits.

  水冶解放后,东子当了民兵,后来被选为水冶镇东关的负责人。在同那些没有逃掉的地主的斗争中,他要求他们交出所有的武器。为了表明他的坚决态度,他从自己的叔父家里收缴了四条枪,这个叔父与土匪有勾结,搞倒卖枪支的活动。

  东子的决心使邻居们感到吃惊。“你兄弟是柯增强的党羽,你怎么敢斗争呢?”他们问道。

  “没关系。”东子说,“咱是为正义而斗争。”

  在每次斗争中、在每次诉苦会上和减租减息运动中,东子都积极带头。他办事公道。他向群众宣传说:“共产党要求咱们讲民主。咱们搞清算必须做到合情合理。闹饥荒时,地主夺去咱们的土地和房屋,不管咱们死活。咱们可不能那么干,要让大家都有活路。”

  东子的亲戚朋友和母亲原来都认为两个儿子里还是小儿子好,因为他给他们东西。在清算运动中,家里分得了一些粮食,现在大家开始认为老大是个能干的人。

  正在这个时候,国民党军队开到了水冶。柯增强也带着还乡团和西则回来了。父亲和母亲竭力劝东子留下来。“不,”他回答说,“八路军走到哪里,我跟到哪里。”他带着妻子立即离开了此地。

 

  After the liberation of Suiyeh, Tungse became a militianian, then he was elected chief of the east sector of Suiyeh near the town walls. In struggling against those landlords who had remained behind, he demanded that they give up all their arms. To show his determination, he took four rifles from his own uncle, a man who had many connections with the bandits and bought and sold rifles.

  Tungse's determination startled his neighbors. "Your brother is a follower of Ko Tseng-chiang. How do you dare struggle?" they asked.

  "Never mind," said Tungse, "I am struggling for justice."

  In every struggle, in every Speak Bitterness Meeting, in every effort to reduce rents, Tungse was the leader. Yet, he tried to be fair. In Qrder to move the people, he said: "The Communist party wants us to have democracy. When we make a settlement, we must make it reasonably. In the famine, the landlords took our land and houses and left us no way to live, but we shall not do that, we must leave everyone a way to live."

  Originally, Tungse's relatives and his mother had thought the younger brother the better of the two sons because he brought them presents. But now, as a result of the settlement, the family got some grain and they began to think the older brother was a capable man.

  Just at this point, the Kuomintang army advanced on Suiyeh. With it came Ko Tseng-chiang, a Home Returning Corps and Sitze. The father and mother tried to persuade Tungse to stay behind. "No," he answered, "where the 8th Route Army goes, I follow." Taking his wife with him, he immediately left the city.

  柯增强一回到水冶又开始欺凌穷人。更恶毒的是他随意杀人。受害者之一是一位五十岁的农民。几年前柯增强夺了他的房子抵债。土改中,老汉领回了自己的房子。这回柯以侵占他的财产为由杀死了这位老汉和他的老伴。

  与此同时,西则没法同他哥哥取得联系。哥哥在离水冶不到十里的地方组织了一支六十人的民兵队伍。每逢集日西则便派几个妇女捎话叫他回家来。

  东子回话说;“我决不到你们那边去。就是死了,我也不回去。”妙的是传讯的妇女也劝他别回去。

  “大家不喜欢还乡团,”她们说,“你若回来,你弟弟不会帮你的。”

  这时候,东子的衣服已经破烂不堪了。他派人到水冶家里要些布。他娘叫一个女孩子捎给他一小团线。“告诉他,”她说,“不要回来。他没衣服穿,我给他做些。”她向小儿子要布,小儿子说啥也不给。

  On returning to Suiyeh, Ko Tseng-chiang plundered the poor again. Worse, he instituted executions. One of his victims was a fifty-year-old farmer from whom Ko had taken his house a few years before in payment of a debt. During the land reform, the old man had received back his house. Now Ko killed both him and his wife for molesting his property.

  In the meantime, Sitze tried to contact his brother who had organized a band of sixty militiamen not three miles outside of Suiyeh. Whenever there was a market day Sitze sent a couple of women messengers to ask him to return home.

  Tungse sent back word: "I shall not go back to your side. Even when I die, I shall not come back." Oddly enough the women messengers encouraged him in this resolve.

  "The people don't like the Home Returning Corps," they said. "If you come back, your brother can't help you."

  By this time, Tungse's clothes were in rags. He sent someone to Suiyeh to beg some cloth. By a young girl, his mother sent him a small bundle of thread. "Tell him," she said, "don't come back. If he has no clothes to wear, I'll make some for him." She begged her younger son for cloth. He would give her none.

  不久,西则离开了家,又回到平原去了。那里的生活比在这荒凉的山沟里舒服些。有人说,他之所以走开是因为怕东子杀他。

  西则走后的第二天,国民党调集三个区的还乡团三百人和一部分保安队人员,出发清乡抢劫了。这是二月下旬时节,雪还覆盖着大地。

  各村做好了进行自卫的准备。县长顶着风寒亲自指挥战斗。他在水冶西边的一个阵地里布置了二百名民兵和第五十二独立团的四十名战士,后者是县里掌握的富有经验的战士。还乡团无法突破这道强大的防线,便向南迂回,准备洗劫南边的几个村庄。

  看到敌人撤退了,王东子带领五个民兵迅猛地追了上去。政治指导员拦住他。东子挣脱了拦阻他的手。

  “我们不是正规部队,”他说,“可是,我们是在保卫自己的家园。当一个民兵,牺牲了性命也是光荣的。”

  他向前面一条战壕里冲去。靠后边一点的几个同伴只见雪和沙子撒落到东子所去的那个浅沟里。

  王东子向前冲时,没有发现隐蔽在他侧翼庙里的一挺机关枪。一颗子弹击中了他,他晃了一下,直挺挺地倒了下去,脸埋在雪里。

  同志们竭力抢救他,但被打了回来。还乡团把东子拖到他们那边。他还没有死,躺在雪里看着俘虏他的人们。

  他艰难地挪动着嘴唇说:“我就是王东子,家住水冶镇东关。我是村长。”他说完这些便死了。

  几个农民把他的尸体抬到水冶,放在东关的街上。保长把地主们叫来,他们洋洋得意地看着他们的敌人的尸体。

  柯增强向尸体吐了一口唾沫。

  “哼!你这个家伙!”他对着死去的东子说,“你说你不回来。现在不是回来了?”

  他下令把尸体拍到三官庙后面。

  “不许埋这具尸体,”他说,“让野狗来吃他。”

  他又把东子的父母抓来。“为打你们的儿子我们用了五十发子弹,”他说,你们必须赔偿我们。”

  东子的父母被关进监狱的时候,亲友们暗暗守在东子的尸体旁边,把野狗赶走。他们守了三天三夜。最后,在舆论的压力下,地主让了步。

  “连狗都不吃他。”柯增强说。于是他准许人家把东子的尸体埋葬了。

  王东子被害不久,我就来到这里。在山区人民中间,他已成为传奇式的人物,英名远扬。正是东子领导着这些人走上了他所信仰的道路——革命斗争的道路。东子被埋在敌占区,但是,常有农民偷偷去水冶探视他的坟墓,防止它被人破坏。

  Soon, Sitze left home, returning to the plains where life was easier than in the desolate mountains. It was said that he left because he was afraid Tungse would kill him.

  The day after Sitze's departure, three hundred men of the Home Returning Corps, summoned from three districts, and some men of the Peace Preservation Corps, organized by the Kuomintang, came out to rob and steal. It was late February and snow still lay upon the ground.

  The villages made ready to defend themselves. In wind and cold, the county magistrate himself came to direct operations. In a field west of Suiyeh, he drew up two hundred militiamen and forty men of the 52nd Independent Regiment, these last a group of experienced soldiers organized by the county. Past these sturdy defenses the Home Returning Corps could not go and so they wheeled around to the south, preparing to loot villages in that direction.

  Seeing the enemy withdrawing, Wang Tungse impetuously followed with five militiamen. A political director tried to halt him. Tungse shook off the restraining hand.

  "We are not regular soldiers," he said. "but we are defending our homes. For a militiaman to sacrifice himself is glorious."

  He ran forward into a ditch. His companions, a little to the rear, could see the snow and sand sprinkling down into the shallow gully where he had gone.

  As he ran up the ditch, Wang Tungse never saw the machine gun hidden in the temple on his flank. A bullet struck him and he spun around and lay flat on the ground, his face buried in the snow.

  His companions tried to rescue him but were driven back. The Home Returning Corps dragged Tungse into their lines. He was not yet dead. He lay in the snow and looked up at his captors. Hardly moving his lips, he called: "I am Wang Tungse. My home is at the east gate of Suiyeh. I am a village chief." With these words, he died.

  Some farmers carried his body to Suiyeh and placed it on the street outside the east gate. The paochang called the landlords who came to gloat over their enemy.

  Ko Tseng-chiang. spit on the corpse.

  "Oh, you fine thing!" he said, addressing the dead Tungse. "You said you would not come back. But now you've come."

  He gave instructions for the body to be carried in back of the Temple of the God of Fate.

  "Don't bury this body," he said. "Let the dogs eat him."

  Soon he arrested Tungse's father and mother.

  "We have used fifty bulleis in attacking your son," he said. "you must repay us."

  While his parents were being led off to jail, other relatives gathered secretly near Tungse's body and drove away the dogs. For three days and three nights, they kept watch over the corpse. At last, under. public censure, the landlords relented.

  "Even the dogs will not eat him," said Ko, and he allowed Tungse's body to be buried.

  Wang Tungse had been killed only a short while before I arrived, but already his name had become somewhat of a legend among the mountain people he had led along the road he believed in, the road of revolutionary struggle. He was buried behind the enemy lines, but every now and then a farmer would go across to Suiyeh to look at his grave and see that it had not been disturbed.