第九章 人民战争
 
CHAPTER IX
 

THE PEOPLE'S WAR

第三十八节 打击反攻倒算
38. Counter-Countersettlement

  如果敌人的装备和你自己差不多,同他作战已经够困难了。如果敌人的物质力量超过你,同他作战是对你的意志的严峻考验。而如果敌人强十倍或基十倍,要进攻并击败他们,看起来几乎是不可能。

  同所有的处于敌人半占领下的县一样,安阳县的困难在于:虽然当地的人民能够有效地组织起来,实行坚壁清野,地方干部能够逃避敌人的杀害,但是,他们没有足够的军事力量可以向装备精良的蒋介石军队发动正面的攻击,把他们赶出去。除了极个别的情况外,他们也不能用宣传的办法把敌人的士兵争取过来。但无论如何,他们必须消灭蒋介石的部队,或者至少使他们不能为非作歹。

  既然他们不能进攻蒋介石摆在正面的大部队,只好绕到他的后面进行骚扰,今天夜里搞掉他一个孤立哨所,明天夜里打散他一个还乡团,后天夜里解放一个村子。

  这种打法不仅危险,而且很费劲、费时。但是,在广大的分散地区里耐心地坚持这种打法,一定会在许多县里一口一口地吃掉蒋介石的兵力。

WAGING a war against an enemy equipped as well as you are is a hard enough proposition. Defending yourself against an enemy much your superior in material strength is an affair that tries the soul. But attacking and defeating an enemy that is ten or twenty times as strong as you are seems almost impossible.

  The difficulty in the case of Anyang County, as with all half-occupied counties, was that though the people could organize themselves sufficiently to evacuate their homes, to save their goods from plunder and to protect their local officials trom murder, they could not develop the military might to drive off the well-armed troops of Chiang Kai-shek by direct assault. Nor, except in isolated cases, could they win the enemy soldiers over by propaganda. Yet, somehow, they had to destroy the forces of Chiang Kai-shek or at least render them harmless.

  Since they could not fall upon the larger garrisons Chiang maintained at the front, their only recourse was to operate in his rear, to pick off an isolated outpost one night, to disperse a Home Returning Corps on another night and to free a village on a third night.

  Such a way of fighting was not only dangerous, but extremely tiresome and more than slow. Yet these operations, carried on with painstaking patience and over widely scattered areas, were destined in many counties to destroy Chiang's forces piecemeal.

  我到达安阳时,这种打法则刚开始。几天前,县政府派八十名民兵偷偷绕过国民党的一系列碉堡,穿越观台和水冶之间的封锁线。民兵们虽然遭到了射击,但是没有停下来还击,而是连续在敌后行进了三十里。他们沿途在每个村庄都留下两、三个民兵做宣传工作。最后只有三十人到达主要目的地一一个驻扎着还乡团的大村庄。为了造成他们是正规军的假像,民兵们猛吹了几声军号。还乡团果然害怕,连夜逃跑了。民兵们召集群众讲话。

  “我们是八路军,”他们说,“我们要让大伙儿知道,我们并没有逃跑。大伙儿不要泄气,我们会经常回来的。从今以后,谁敢压迫你们,我们就来收拾他。”

  这种似乎不关痛痒的袭击的效果比乍看上去大得多,影响很广泛。本来对这场战争就没有什么信心的蒋军士兵,发现夜间有民兵在他们背后活动,更是龟缩到碉堡里,不敢出来。这样一来,民兵再进行袭击就容易一些了。与此同时,大大小小的地主不敢睡在当地还乡团的管地里,为了安全,他们开始住在一个中心地点。这就使得更多的村庄获得了自由。穷苦的佃农们发现,一路之隔就有自己的同盟者,便开始大胆地起来斗争。地主被吓怕了,也不敢过分作威作福。

 

  When I arrived in Anyang, this type of warfare had only just begun. Some days before, the county government had managed to break the Kuomintang blockade line between Kwangtai and Suiyeh by infiltrating eighty militiamen past a long row of Kuomingtang pillboxes. Though fired on, the militiamen had not stopped to fight, but bad continued on ten miles behind the lines. Along the way, two and three militiamen each village to do propaganda work. Only thirty men arrived at the main target - a large village housing a Home Returning Corps. In order to give the impression that they were regular troops, the militiamen blew several mighty blasts on their bugles. As hoped, the Home Returning Corps took fright and fled in the night. The militiamen searched out the people and delivered a number of speeches.

  "We are from the 8th Route Army," they said. "we want to show you we have not fled. Do not give up hope, we will come back often. From now on anyone who oppresses you will have to deal with us."

  The results of this seemingly innocuous raid were more widespread than appears at first glance. As soon as they saw that militiamen were operating behind their lines at night, the soldiers of Chiang, who had little belief in the war, took to their pillboxes and would not come out. Thus, further raids became easier. At the same time, various landlords afraid to sleep in local Home Returning Corps barracks, began to collect in a central location for safety. That left further villages free. Then poor tenants realizing they had allies just across the way began to stand up to the landlords who were scared to be too severe.

  当我到安阳时,这种袭击正以前所未有的规模向国民党占领区的纵深发展着。每天夜里总有三人,五人,十人或十五人组成的小组,深入敌后搜集情报,做宣传工作,打击还乡团和掉队的国民党士兵。

  领导这种袭击的民兵往往是从蒋管区逃出来的人。有时他们前来袭击,是为了给被害的亲属报仇。然而,这种袭击更多的是同土改密切联系在一起,目的是保卫士改的果实,迫使地主退还他们从人民手中夺走的一切。总的是给穷人撑腰打气。这些行动都是在打击反攻倒算这个听起来很厉害的名义下进行的。虽然经常听到枪声大作,但是我认为这种袭击主要不在于其军事意义,而在于它是以武装手段进行政治性和社会性的斗争。袭击的目标往往不是哨所,甚至也不是交通线,而是社会组织、政府机关和个人。比如说,执行袭击任务的民兵们会去解救受到强迫婚姻之害的姑娘,推翻人们痛恨的村长以及绑架地主。简言之,这种战争着眼于人们的感情,争的是民心,而不是土地。

  我不是说宣传可以代替战斗,而是说游击战是在一种与正规战完全不同的感情环境中进行的战争。游击队和民兵搜集情报的方式足以说明这一点。民兵们在夜里穿过封锁线,爬过院墙,敲一个妇女的门,问道:“他们怎么对待你?让你交多少税? 吃的是什么?”农民们偷偷地溜到八路军这边来呆一两天。他们所提供的情报主要不是关于国民党军队的部署,而是谁被抓了夫,谁家的女人挨了打或者哪个孩子的爹娘被害死了,等等。

  我呆在无人地带的若干村子期间,经常看到农民们跑来给游击队送情报。这种情报任何正规军队的军官都会认为没有价值,但对这种类型的战争却是非常有用的。游击队在知道谁遭到了不幸的同时,也就了解到可能帮助他们的人的名字。另一方面,把所有这些情况送到后方加以整理后,八路军就可据此制定出有效的政治和社会方面的方针政策。

  在了解到村里老百姓遭受什么苦难的同时,民兵也了解到那些欺凌老百姓的地主、狗腿子和土匪的名字。对于夺走老百姓东西的地主,民兵就写信勒令他把东西还回去。如果他没有照办就向他提出严重警告。如果他还是不理,就在夜里把他抓来。

  Now, on my arrival in Anyang, the raids were spreading ever deeper and wider into Kuomintang territory. Every night small groups of three, five, ten and fifteen men were going behind the lines to gather information, to do propaganda work, to fight with the Home Returning Corps and with stray Kuomintang soldiers.

  Very often the militiamen who led the raids were refugees from Chiang's areas. Sometimes they went on the raids to get revenge for relatives who had been killed. Most often, however, the raids were intimately connected with the land reform. Their purpose was to protect the results of the iand division, to force the landlords to return what they had taken from the people and generally to encourage the poor. Such operations went under the sinister-sounding name of Counter-Counter-Settlement. Although there was often much shooting, the raids did not seem to me to be essentially military. Rather did this kind of warfare seem to be a political and a social combat carried on by armed means. The targets of the raids were not so often strongpoints or even lines of communications, as they were social institutions, government organs and private individuals. Thus, raiding militiamen would free a girl who had been forced into marriage, depose a hated village chief or kidnap a landord. In brief, this war aimed at people's emotions and sought to conquer hearts and not territory.

  I do not mean that propaganda replaced combat, but rather that the guerrilla war was carried on in an entirely different emotional environment than regular war. An example of this is furnished by the way the guerrillas and the militia gathered intelligence. Militiamen, crossing the lines at night, would climb over a house wall, knock on a woman's door and ask: "How are you being treated? How much have you been taxed? What are you getting to eat?" Farmers sneaking over for a day or so to the 8th Route Army side would bring not so much information about Kuomintang dispositions as they would bring the names of peasants who had been conscripted for labor, of women who were being beaten or of children who had lost their fathers.

  Time after time I have sat in various villages in no man's land and seen farmers come up to guerrillas and give them information that any regular army officer would have scorned. But such information was extremely useful in this type of warfare. The local guerrillas in learning who was suffering would also learn the name of someone who would probably help them. On the other hand all this information was sent back to the rear where it was collated so that the 8th Route Army could make an effective political and social policy.

  While uncovering the suffering of the villagers, the militiamen also uncovered the names of landlords, dog legs and bandits who were treating the people badly. If a landlord took things from the people, the militiamen would send him a letter warning him to return what he had taken. If he did not, they would send him a more peremptory note. If nothing happened, they very often kidnaped him and brought him across the lines in the night.
  安阳县在两个月的时间里,有八十个地主和还乡团团员被用这种方式抓到封锁线这边来。一般来说,由区政治指导员或区长向他们训话后,就把他们放走。我并不十分赞成绑架,不过,县干部们对待曾经带着武装同他们斗争过的地主的这种耐心和宽大有时使我感到惊讶。

  民兵在国民党占领区的活动往往带有罗宾汉式的侠义色彩。因为民兵们自己都是穷人,所以,每当他们发现有哪个男人或女人遭到了不幸,就尽力相助。当然这种打游击的农民进行除暴安良时,常常不免有些过火行为。在不少人眼中,他们简直是十恶不赦的杀人犯。但是,我却有充分理由认为,蒋管区的许多穷苦农民都把那些在夜里来搭救他们的人看做是见义勇为的侠客,有时简直将他们看做是著名的加拉哈兹爵士式的人物。

  有一次,在新年前夕,一小支民兵到敌后四十里的卫漳向一个反攻倒算的地主投信去。路上,他们在一个村子里停下来休息。夜深人静,街上空无一人。民兵们靠住一家人的院墙休息时,听到里边传来哭声。他们爬过墙,跳到院子里,发现一个老大娘坐在门前的台阶上伤心地哭泣。

  老大娘一见带枪的人吓楞了。

  “不要怕,”一个民兵说,并问她为啥哭。

  “这里有个叫魏庆廉的地主,”她解释说,“在清算运动中,我分了一点儿地,他回来后说我共他的产,要我还他五斗小米。我没有那么多的小米,还不起他。”

  “我存了一斗小米,要和闺女过年,魏庆廉来了全给抢走了。这个年可昨过啊?啥都没的吃了。”

  民兵们很气愤,但不知道老大娘讲的是否确实。为了弄清事实,他们走访了四、五户人家,大家都说,魏庆廉是个坏家伙,那个老大娘确实没吃的了。

  因为这些民兵本不是在这个村子执行任务,所以他们继续向卫漳进发,在那里完成了投信任务。在回来的路上,他们又在这个村子停了下来,继续调查关于那位老大娘的事,对老大娘说的每件事都做了核实。民兵们问明地主的住处,借了一副绳梯,爬墙跳进魏家的院子。屋里的人都闩门熟睡着。

  “魏庆廉在家吗?”他们高声叫门。

  一个女的回答说;“他不在家。”他们要她开门,但是,没人来开门。民兵们商量了一会儿。最后,一个人大声说:“拿一颗手榴弹来。”

  其实他们身边没带手榴弹,只是想吓唬地主,让他出来开门。但里头还是没人出来。

  “用炸药炸他狗日的。”一个民兵喊道。

  民兵们当然没有这种稀罕的东西。但是,这句话起了作用,地主婆开了门。民兵们冲进屋里,发现姓魏的地主躺在坑上。

  “啊,你们来啦,”地主说。他已经意识到碰到八路的民兵了。“要是知道是你们,我早就开门了。”民兵们二话不说,开枪把他打死了。

  民兵们走到大街上大声喊道:“我们对魏庆廉做了调查,发现他抢走了一个老大娘的东西。他是个罪大恶极的地主,他反攻倒算。我们已经把他处决了。如果哪个地主还想抢劫乡亲们的东西,请他看看魏庆廉的下场!”

  During a two-month period in Anyang, eighty landlords and members of the Home Returning Corps were brought across the lines in this way. Generally, the subdistrict commissar or the district government head would give them a lecture and then let them go. I don't exactly approve of kidnaping, yet I was sometimes amazed by the patience and forbearance county officials showed toward landlords who had carried arms and fought them.

  The operations of militiamen in Kuomintang territory often had a Robin Hood character about them. Since the militiamen were poor men themselves, whenever they found a man or woman in distress they would try to help them out. Undoubtedly the roving farmers in redressing wrongs often committed brutal deeds and to many men they must have appeared as nothing but barbaric murderers. But I have very good reason to know that many poor peasants in Chiang Kai-shek's areas looked on these men who came to them in the night as virtuous outlaws and sometimes as shining Sir Galahads.

  Once on New Year's Eve, a small militia band went to the town of Weichang, thirteen miles in the enemy's rear, to deliver a letter to a landlord who had countersettled. On the way, they paused in a village to rest. There was no one on the street, and it was very dark and quiet. While leaning against the side of a house, the militiamen heard the sound of crying coming from within. Climbing over the walls and dropping down into the courtyard, they discovered an old woman sitting on her doorstep weeping bitterly.

  At sight of the armed men, the woman grew terrified.

  "Do not be afraid," said one of the militiamen, and asked the woman why she had been crying.

  "There is a landlord here named Wei Ching-lien," she explained.

  "During the settlement I got some land and he came and accused me of being a Communist and demanded five tou of millet from me. I didn't have that much millet and couldn't pay him.

  "I had prepared a tou of millet for myself and daughter for New Year's Day, but Wei Ching-lien came and took it. I don't know what I am going to do tomorrow. We have nothing to eat."

  The militiamen grew angry, but wondered if the old woman's story were true. To find out, they went into four or five houses and asked the people. Everyone said Wei Ching-lien was a wicked man and that the old woman had nothing to eat.

  Since the duty of the militiamen was not in this village, they went on to Weichang and delivered their letter. But on the way back, they stopped off again and questioned some more people about the old woman's story. Everything she had told them checked. The militiamen learned where the landlord lived, then borrowed a rope ladder, climbed the wall and jumped down into the courtyard of Wei's house. Everyone was asleep behind bolted doors.

  "Is Wei Ching-lien at home?" they called.

  A woman answered. "He is not at home." They requested her to open the door, but no one came. The militiamen debated a while. Finally one said in a loud voice: "Give me a hand grenade."

  No one had any grenades, but they hoped to scare the landlord into opening his door. Still no one came.

  "Let's blow him up with TNT," said another militiaman.

  Though the militiamen, of course, had no such precious substance, these words brought the wife to the door.

  The militiamen brushed by. There was Wei in bed.

  "Oh you've come back," he said, recognizing he had to deal with 8th Route militia. "If I had known it was you, I would have opened the door." Without saying a word, the militiamen shot and killed him.

  Going out on the street, they shouted: "We have investigated Wei Ching-lien and found that he plundered an old woman's things. He is a sinful landlord and made a countersettlement. We have sentenced him to death. If there is any other landlord who wants to rob the people, then please let him look at Wei Ching-lien."

  并不是所有的袭击都伤人命。有些袭击还是颇有风趣的。一支民兵小分队到了敌后,勒令一个地主把从穷人手中夺来的东西送回去。地主答应了,但是不见行动。民兵们又去找他,这次地主说:“我马上就送回去。可是,我得把东西从地窖里挖出来呀。”又没有什么行动。民兵们第三次到地主家时,地主婆在门口回答民兵说,她男人不在家。民兵们走进屋里发现炕上有两个人睡过。他们打着手电筒在屋里四处寻找,看见地主一丝不挂地趴在屋梁上。当手电筒照到他身上时,他吓得直哆嗦,从屋梁上掉下地。天很冷,民兵们不让他穿衣服。

  “喂,”他们问,“你打算把东西还给穷人吗?”

  “哎呀,我正打算明天还。”地主说。

  “好吧!”民兵说,“等你把东西还了,我们就把衣服还给你。”说着,民兵们便带着地主所有的衣服和被子走了。

  民兵们也管婚事。在饥荒年月里,一些佃户不单失去了土地,连妻子也被地主和土匪抢走了。在第六区里,我听说,一个佃农在清算运动中斗了地主,分得了一些土地。当国民党和这个地主回来时,这个佃农逃跑了。地主把他的妻子抓来,并对邻居们说:“他分了我的地,我就占他的老婆。”一天夜里,这位佃农和一些民兵回到村里,翻墙进去打死了那个地主,夺回了妻子。

  虽然有很多次袭击是为了报私仇,但是,在敌后进行的多数袭击具有更普通的意义,其效果比人们所想像的大得多。这是因为民兵们一步步地把还乡团从蒋介石占领区的村子里赶走,于是有更多的老百姓脱离了蒋介石的统治,缩小了蒋军和官府的活动地盘。用一位民兵的话说,这些活动向人民说明“天下是我们的”。

  蒋管区的广大农民不堪压迫,他们盼着八路军来。所以民兵们夜里到来时,总是受到人民的衷心欢迎。有好几次,在我们乘天亮前从蒋管区的村子离开时,我都听到老乡们对民兵说:“你们快些回来。要不,我们就活不下去了。”

  Not all the raids were so grim as this. Some of them were even funny. A militia band went behind the lines and told a landlord he should give batk the things he had taken from the poor. The landlord agreed, but still returned nothing. Again the militiamen went and this time the landlord said: "I am going to give them back right away, but I have to dig them up from the cave where I buried them." Again nothing happened. The third time the militiamen went to the landlord's house, his wife answered the door, saying her husband was not at home. The militiamen walked in and noticed that two people had been sleeping on the kang. Shining their flashlight around the room, they saw the landlord, completely naked clinging to the rafters overhead. When the light shone on him, the landlord trembled so violently that he fell to the floor. It was cold. The militiamen would not let the landlord get dressed.

  "Well," they asked, "are you going to give back their things to the poor?" "Oh, I was just preparing to do so tomorrow," said the landlord.

  "Fine," said the militiamen. "when you give back their things, we will give back your clothes,?and with these words they walked out with all the landlord's clothing and his blankets.

  The militiamen also became mixed up in marital affairs. During the famine, some tenants had lost not only their land, but their wives to landlords and bandits. In the sixth chu I heard of a tenant farmer who had struggled against a landlord and received some land in the settlement. When the Kuomintang and the landlord came back, the tenant fled. The landlord kidnaped his wife, saying to neighbors, "He took my property and I'll take his." One night with some militiamen, the tenant returned to his village, climbed over the wall, shot the landlord and took back his wife.

  Many as were the personal vendettas, most of the raids behind the lines had more general aims. And they had much more effect than might be imagined. For step by step the militiamen drove the Home Returning Corps from the villages behind Chiang's lines. This meant just so many more people freed from Chiang Kai-shek and just so much narrower an area in which his troops and officials could operate. In the words of one militiaman, these operations showed the people "that the world is ours."

  Because of the conditions behind Chiang's lines, thousands of villagers were waiting for the 8th Route Army, and when the militiamen came at night, they received a heartfelt welcome.

  Several times, when departing from villages behind Chiang's lines at dawn, I heard farmers remark to militiamen: "Come back quickly again. If you do not, we cannot live on."