第九章 人民战争
 
CHAPTER IX
 

THE PEOPLE'S WAR

第三十九节 武工队
39. Guerrilla Commando

  对一位将军来说,要把人民战争开展得更好,最简便的方法是从正规军里抽出一些小分队去增强这方面的工作。一般说来,不从正规军里抽出入人来做骨干,便很难发动群众拿起武器。

  这是对人民战争公认的看法。

  但是在安阳,在正规军没有给予多少帮助的情况下,人民战争也开展起来了。这主要是因为人们没法活下去了。县里的主要武装是民兵—也就是带枪的农民、武装起来的老百姓。他们出来打两星期的仗,然后再回到村里种地。不过,县里还有一支由经过训练的战士组成的比较固定的武装,这支力量增强了那些缺乏训练的民兵的士气。

  这支力量叫做武工队。武工队里虽然有一些八路军的干部和战土,但是,它绝不是一支正规军。安阳县根本没有正规部队。武工队完全由县里领导。从某种意义上说,这些武工队是游击专家,同时也是游击队员,执行一般民兵难以胜任的特定任务。他们有时炸国民党的炮楼,有时颠覆火车,有时参加对特别强大的还乡团的战斗。民兵同国民党军队交了锋而又对付不了强敌时,武工队经常驰援他们。

THE easiest way for a general to make a people's war more effective is to support the movement by small detachments sent from the regular army. Without support of a few regular troops, the people generally are not encouraged to take up arms.

  Such is the classic view of a people's war.

  Yet, in Anyang County, the people's war started with little help from the army and priniarily because conditions of life had become unbearable. The main fighting force in the county was the militia - that is, farmers with rifles, armed civilians, who came out and fought for two weeks and then went back to their villages to resume farming. Nevertheless, there was a more permanent military force composed of trained soldiers who provided a stiffening to the fighting morale of the untrained farmers.

  This force was known as the Armed Working Team. Though there were a few regular soldiers and officers from the 8th Route Army in this outfit, it was by no means a regular army unit, of which there were none in Anyang, and it was completely under the command of the county magistrate. These Armed Working Teams were in a way guerrilla specialists and at the same time they had somewhat the character of commandos, performing jobs that were entirely too big or specialized for the ill-equipped militiamen. Sometimes they would blow up a Kuomintang blockhouse, sometimes derail a train, sometimes join the fight against an especiapy strong Home Returning Corps. Very often, they came to the rescue of militia units that had become involved in scraps with Kuomintang troops that were too strong for them to handle.

  一天早上,我决定去看一支这样的武工队。于是陈翻译、刘明基、几个民兵和我一起沿着一条小山路出发了。走了几天,到了太行山麓的一个小村子里。一支四十人的武工队就驻扎在这里。

  不知是精心挑选的还是无意的巧合,驻地的景色宜人,上有峭壁,旁有潺潺流水。国民党部队离这里只有十几里,我却在这里悠哉闲哉地一边沐浴着阳光,一边与人谈论着战争。

  武工队的军容和素质与民兵完全不同。他们都穿着整洁的制服,看上去比民兵健康、壮实,好像他们吃得特别好似的。但是,在我跟他们在一起的全部时间里,我们的伙食无非是小米和萝卜,没有别的东西。战土们把小米装在一个香肠似的环形布袋里,背在身上。口粮是县里发的,他们不再从老百姓那里要粮食。这一带老百姓的生活已经够苦的了。

 

  One morning I decided I would like to see one of these teams, so Mr. Chen, Liu Ming-chi, a couple of militiamen and I set out over a mountain trail and after a couple of days?walking reached a small village in the foothills of the Taihang Mountains where a unit of forty men had set up temporary headquarters.

  Whether by design or accident, this headquarters was in a rather idyllic spot on the edge of a bubbling brook beneath the overhanging brow of a sheer rock cliff. The Kuomintang troops were only a few miles away, yet I spent a very quiet time here basking in the sun and conversing with my companions about the war.

  In aspect, as well as training, these men were entirely different from the militiamen. All of them wore uniforms which were kept spotlessly clean. They seemed healthier than the militiamen and stronger, as if they were particularly well fed. Yet, in all the time I was with them, we never ate anything but millet and a few carrots. Each soldier carried his own millet in a cloth, which he rolled like a sausage and slung over his back in a loop. This grain was given them by the county and no one ever took any food from the civilians, who were in a pretty bad way in this area.

  这支武工队的领导人李玉明是个体格健壮、三十二岁左右的人。他长得细长而又结实,黑红的脸膛,总是带着严肃的微笑。他虽然言语不多,但是说话很清楚。他常常把我带到一家农民的房顶上,向我讲述他的生活,一谈就是几个小时。我对此很感兴趣,因为他是个知识分子。他起来反对蒋介石的原因同一般农民完全不同。不过,他的造反同中国的一切造反一样,都同封建环境有关。

  他出生在离黄河不远的晋西山区一个相当大的村子里。他不到十岁死了娘,他爹又结了婚。继母对他很残酷,后来强迫他同一个他不喜欢的麻脸姑娘结了婚。由于他爷爷的坚持和资助,他得以继续学习,最后进了省会太原的一所中学。在那里,外界的新鲜见闻给了他很大的影响。他的这些见闻一部分来自他的同学,但主要是来自有关欧美的书籍。那时日本占领了满洲,风起云涌的抗日学生运动也深深地影响了他。为了这个原因,也由于他当时钱快用光了,南京政府的军官学校招收各省公费生的广告吸引了他。

  大约在一九三五年,他和一批华北学生一起到南京考入了蒋介石的一个军校。第一天上午,新生上课,学校的教务长站起来宣布,他们受训后将当宪兵。他和几百个同学对此大为惊愕。这位教务长指出,任何一个现代国家的支柱部是警察和宪兵,并广引博征德国和意大利的例子来论证这一点。

  虽然学生们对希特勒或墨索里尼知道得不多,但是,他们感到上了当,十分气愤。他们本来希望受训后去打日本。可是,现在他们发现自己被骗到这里来,将来要充当蒋介石镇压人民的警察和特务。

  The leader of this particular outfit, Li Yu-ming, was a well set-up man, about thirty-two, slender and wiry, with a bronzed face, and he had a ready but grave smile. He was exceptionally articulate for an army officer and, though normally a quiet man, he used to take me up on the roof of a peasant's home and talk to me for hours about his life. I found it interesting because he was an intellectual who had rebelled against Chiang Kai-shek for reasons quite different than those of the peasants. Yet his revolt was tied up, as almost all such revolts were, with the feudal conditions of China.

  He had been born in a good-sized village in the hills of western Shansi Province, not far from the Yellow River. His mother died when he was about ten and his father married again. His new step-mother treated him cruelly and finally forced him to marry a girl with a pock-marked face for whom he had no liking. At the insistence and with the aid of his grandfather, he continued his studies, finally going to middle school in the provincial capital at Taiyuan. There, he was much influenced by his first glimpses of the outside world, glimpses obtained partly from other companions, but mostly from books about Europe and America. He was also deeply moved by various student movements against the Japanese who were then in occupation of Manchuria. For this reason, and also because his money was running out, he was attracted by advertisements of the Nanking government offering scholarships to provincial students in the officer's training school in the national capital.

  About 1935, with a number of other students from North China, he journeyed to Nanking and enrolled himself in one of Chiang Kai-shek's military schools. The first morning, he and several hundred other students in the freshman class were greatly surprised when the dean of the school got up and announced that they were to be trained as gendarmes. The dean pointed out that the backbone of any modern country was its police force and its gendarmerie and he made numerous references to Italy and Germany to prove his case.

  Though the students knew little about Hitler or Mussolini, they were enraged at the way they had been cheated. They had expected to be trained as officers in an army that would eventually fight Japan. Now they found they had been lured from their homes to form an internal police and spy force for Chiang Kai-shek.

  这批青年学生大多数年龄在十七和二十岁之间,充满着理想,现在被迫过着这种生活,震动了他们,打破了他们的理想。许多人过去从未离开过家门,有些人在夜里哭泣,还有些人,特别是北方的学生开了小差。因此,校方在晚上把全体新生的衣服都收走,平时也很少让他们出校门。

  他们不是军人,却不准他们退学。他们比囚犯好不了多少。有一次,一个逃跑的河南学生被捉到了。全校的学生都被拉到南京城外观看对他的处决。学生们很害怕。不过,胆子大的人还是接连不断地逃跑。据李说,仅一个学期就有近三百名学生开了小差。

  李自己没有逃跑,因为家里比以前更贫困了,他不想回去增加家庭的负担。

  在一个炎热的夏天,气温达华氏一百度以上,李所在的班被拉到南京城外进行长途行军训练。学员全副武装,负重在身。许多学员,特别是北方人,中暑昏倒在路上。李也踉踉跄跄地走着,走慢了就有人戳他,跌倒时又有人踢他。他眼发直、心发慌、双腿颤抖,最后,一头栽倒在地上。

  第二天,他在一家医院的院子中苏醒过来。他拉开盖在脸上的被单一看,四周全是他同学的尸体。一个护士走过来,使劲地看着他,喊道:“这里还有一个没有死。”这时,他才知道,他已经被当做死人和其他四十多个死去的同学放在一起了。

  他被胡乱地扔到一张床上,好久也没有人护理他。旁边有一个重病号,睡梦中不断地呻吟。李总是大声地骂着叫醒他。但是那个人却用和善的微笑回答他的叫驾,还说:“年纪轻轻就离开了家,难哪!”李感到很惭愧。有时候这个人唱起京戏来,勾起李思念在北方的家而悲哭。

  一天夜里,那个人病危,喘着气要水喝,李一遍又一遍地喊叫护理员,但是,没有一个人来。早晨,李被全体病员的一阵大笑声吵醒了。一个护理员正在摇晃那个人。其实人已经死了。病员们都笑那个护理员在叫一个死人醒过来。

  病友之死,使李的情绪极度消沉。他心想,一个人远离家乡,举目无亲,死了还要受人嘲笑,太惨了!他下定决心再也不回学校了。

 

  Since most of the boys were between seventeen and twenty, they were quite idealistic and the life they were now forced to lead shocked and disillusioned them. Many of the boys had never been away from home before and some cried during the night, but others, especially the northern students, began to run away. As a result, all the new students were forced to hand in their clothes at night and were seldom let out of the compound.

  Although they were not in the army, the students were not allowed to resign from the school. They were little better than prisoners. Once, one Honan student was caught running away and the whole school was marched outside the walls of Nanking and made to watch his execution. The students were terror struck, yet the more daring ones continued to flee. In one term, according to Li, nearly three hundred students ran away.

  Li, himself, did not flee because he did not want to return home to burden his family which had become still poorer.

  One hot summer day when the temperature was over 100, Li's class was sent on a long training march outside the walls of Nanking. In full regalia and with heavy packs on their backs, many of the students, especially those from the north, succumbed to sunstroke and passed out on the road. Li, himself, staggered on. When he walked slowly, he was prodded. When he fell down he was kicked. His eyes staring, his mind reeling, his legs trembling, he at last toppled over.

  The next day he regained consciousness in the middle of a hospital courtyard. Drawing the sheet back from his face he saw the bodies of his fellow-students all around him. A nurse came and looked at him in a hard way. She called out: "Here's one that isn't dead." From this he knew that he had been left for dead with about forty of his companions.

  He was thrown roughly into a bed where he remained untended for a long time. Next to Li, there was a very sick man who constantly groaned in his sleep. Li used to wake him up with loud curses. The man, however, returned his harsh words with a kindly smile. "It's hard to be away from home when you're young," he said, and Li felt ashamed. Sometimes the man sang songs from Peiping operas and Li cried as he thought of his home in the north.

  One night, Li's neighbor became very ill and gasped for water. Li yelled again and again for an orderly, but no one came. In the morning he was awakened by the sound of loud laughter from all the patients. An orderly was shaking his neighbor. But the man was already dead and the patients were laughing to see the orderly trying to wake a dead man.

  The death of his friend drove Li into a state of morbid depression. He thought how terrible it was to die far from home without friends, without family and with people who would laugh when you died. He determined he would never return to the school.

  在那次行军训练中,李的腿受了轻伤。于是他假装腿不好使了。一个星期又一个星期,他不肯下地行走。医生开始还有些纳闷,后来宣布他得了一种怪病。结果,学校把他开除了。

  他拄着拐棍,由两个朋友搀扶着,乘渡船过了长江。到了对岸,看到自己又踏上了华北的土地,他大大松了一口气,甩掉拐棍,高兴地笑了。

  到了家,他看见父亲病倒在床上。“我听到你出事了,”父亲说,“我以为我活不了了。现在我的病会好起来的。”李的麻脸妻子也在柔情满怀地等待着他。他虽说是违愿地同她结了婚,对她没什么感情,但是,他待她还是不错的,因为她从未对他做过任何错事。现在,他自己又吃了这么多的苦头,不忍心去伤害任何人了。

  在家里,经过一段精神恍惚的时期,他渐渐下地干活了,有时在他家附近的小山上长时间地散步。他觉得生活中美好的东西只剩下大自然、家庭和几个朋友了。他痛恨社会,不再想出去见世面了。在地里干活的过程中,他同几个长工交了朋友,渐渐感到这些人比村里任何人都好。

  During the training march, Li had slightly injured his leg. He now pretended the leg would not get well. Week after week, he refused to walk. The doctors, puzzled at first, finally announced he had some rare disease. He was dismissed from school.

  On crutches and supported by two friends, he made his way to the ferry leading across the Yangtze River. Reaching the other side, he took a deep breath of relief, threw away his crutches and then laughed with joy to find that he was in North China.

  Arriving home, he found his father ill in bed. "I knew you were in trouble," said the old man, "and I did not think to live. But now I shall get better." Li's pock-marked wife was also waiting for him in a subdued, humble way. Although he had been married against his desires and had little affection for his wife, Li treated her well, for she had never done anything bad to him. Then, he had undergone so much bitterness himself, be had not the heart to be unkind to anyone.

  For a while he lay in a kind of stupor around the house. Then he began to work in the fields and take long walks in the hills about his home. It seemed to him that the only good thing left in life was nature, a man's family and a few friends. He hated society and had little desire to go out and see the world again. Working in his fields, he made friends with some "long-term" workers and he came to feel that these were much finer people than anyone else in the village.
  这时候,一个老同学从共产党的首都延安给他写了一封信,叫他去那里学习。他历经艰险,穿过国民党的封锁线,到了延安。一到那里,就有一位干部警告他说,他将要过艰苦的生活,甚至没什么东西吃,他也可能冻死或饿死,将来在同日本人作战中他还可能牺牲。李说,他愿意冒这个风险。

  他进了抗日军政大学。这是他一生中最快活的时期。他领教过蒋介石学校里的非人的生活,而在这里,他却惊奇地看到学员们互相搭着肩,唱着歌,从一个教室走到另一个教室。他那消沉的情绪为之一扫而光,开始与人热情交往。

  “你瞧,”有一天他对我说,“从那以后,我完全变了。正如你所看到的,我现在常露笑容。以前我总是闷闷不乐,灰心丧气,非常不开朗。”

  李在学校里过这种质朴而又美好的生活只有六个月多一点的时间。一天,教员宣布,中国同日本开战了。“你们这批学员的训练还没有完全结束,”教务长说,“但是,前线需要你们。”李同另外五、六个人一起到了山西的山里。他站在公路上看到蒋介石的士兵慌张狼狈地逃出山西。每当他发现掉队的士兵,他总是动员他们进山里来继续抗战。他不以党员的身份进行工作,因为他还不是共产党员,而是以统一战线的组织者的身份进行工作。开始他只有四、五个同伴一起工作,力量比较单薄。后来逐渐建立起一小支游击队。粮食很缺,他常到村子里找佃农,打听到逃跑的地主埋藏粮食的地方,就把粮食挖出来,供给他的游击队。一连几个月,他东藏西躲,经常处于日本人的包围之中,不断地从一个山头转移到另一个山头。他吃得很少,睡眠不够,穿得也很破。

  About this time, one of his former classmates sent him a letter from Yenan, the Communist capital, begging him to come up there to school. After several adventures, Li made his way through the Kuomintang lines and reached Yenan. On his arrival, a cadre warned him that he was in for a hard life, that he would get little to eat and that he would probably be killed in the expected Japanese war or by frost or starvation. Li said he would take a chance.

  He enrolled in an anti-Japanese training school. It was the happiest time of his life. Having gone through so much in Chiang Kai-shek's schools, he was surprised to see students walking from classroom to classroom with their arms around each other, singing. He lost his morose depressed attitude and began to open his heart to others.

  "You know," he said to me one day, "I've completely changed since then. As you can see, I am always smiling now. But before I was glum, frustrated and unhappy."

  Li's idyllic life lasted little more than six months. One day, the schoolteacher came and announced that China was at war with Japan. "You students are not completely trained," said the dean, "but you are needed at the front." With five or six others, Li went into the Shansi Mountains. He stood on highways and watched the soldiers of Chiang Kai-shek running away in panic through Shansi. Wherever he found a deserting soldier, he tried to get him to go into the mountains and continue resistance. He did not operate as a Communist, which he was not, but as an organizer for the United Front. Except for four or five companions, he operated alone. Gradually he built up a small guerrilla band. He seldom had food. He would go into a village and find a tenant and ask him where the fledaway landlord had buried his grain. The two of them would dig it up and then Li would supply his guerrillas. For months on end, he lived a hunted existence, always surrounded by the Japanese. From one mountain peak to another, he was continually on the move. He ate little, slept less, dressed in rags.

  他曾一度参加过山西某县的统一战线政府。县长是个大烟鬼,什么事都让李去干。李想法减轻农民的捐税负担,但是遭到了绅士们的反对,最后被他们赶下台。

  后来,他加入一支较大的游击队,在里面当了政治委员,这一职务相当于副队长。日本人凶狠地攻打这一支游击队,打伤了许多人。李带领战士们坚守一个比较高的山头,他们亲眼看到日本人用刺刀将游击队的伤员捅死。经过了一场激烈的战斗李带领部队突了围,经过几个星期的行军,终于与一支正规的八路军游击队汇合。

  在抗日战争第六年的年底,李被调到后方接受正规战的训练。几乎所有的学员和教员都是久经沙场的人,他们共同研究作战的方法。李从学校出来时,已经是一个合格的军官了。他不再想打游击战了。他感到打游击不够痛快。原来计划他和另外几个军官到山东去。但是,因为过不了日本人在平原上的封锁线,李再次被派到游击区——这次是在安阳后边的山里。就在他到这里前,一个有爱国心的地主与邻村几个倾向日本的地主发生了争吵。他们是为一条流经这几个地主各自所在的村庄的小河的用水问题争吵的。那个有爱国心的地主应其他地主的邀请赴了宴,在宴会中间遭到了谋杀。他的亲戚、朋友和同村人都要求为他报仇。李担负了组织和训练这些人的工作,这是一桩苦差。李曾向他们讲述过民主问题。他们对他讲的话是那样的认真,以致于不服从命令了。在战斗中,每个人都各有打算,自行其是。后来,他们发现打仗并不是好玩的,就都不想干了。李不能训斥他们,因为没人肯接受批评。他不得不把他们一个一个叫去进行教育。他就是这样以极大的耐心建立了一支武工队。他还得在各种情况下领着他们干。因为遇到危险,他们还可能开小差。有一次,为了阻止队伍溃退,他受了伤,腿骨折了。但是,农民们保卫了他,把他背走,脱离了险境。

  因为他瘸得厉害——这次是真的瘸了——他不再参加需要走长路的远征了。然而他的部下现在已经训练得很好了,就是他不在也能打仗。所以李很为他们而自豪。很明显,他对这支武工队的重视大大超过了对民兵的重视。

  像李这种类型的人在共产党地区绝非少有,他是其中一个最好的典型。在他身上,实干家和知识分子的气质得到了很好的结合。他那种沉着持重的风度使人觉得稳当可靠。我常想,如果共产主义运动由这一类型的人来掌握——共产党内部权力问题还没有完全解决—那就没有什么可怕的了。如果让纯知识分子占了上风,那么个人迷信之风就可能统治中国。

  我想同李的武工队一起到敌后参加一次袭击,因为看起来这支队伍非常精干。但是,李被调走了,我只好随一支民兵小分队一起到敌后去,而没有其他选择。李曾劝我不要去,因为民兵没有经过很好的训练。但是,我还是决定去。此行至少是有趣的,可以看到真正的人民战争。

  At one time, he joined a United Front government in Shansi. The magistrate was an opium smoker and let Li do all the work. Li tried to lighten the burden of taxes on the peasants. The gentry protested and finally drove him out of office.

  Finally he hooked up with a larger guerrilla band, becoming a political director, a duty tantamount to vice-commander. The Japanese savagely attacked the band, wounding many and then bayoneting to death the wounded men before the eyes of Li and his men who were clinging to a higher level of a mountain peak. After a bitter struggle, Li and his men broke through and after a march of many weeks joined a regular 8th Route Army guerrilla outfit.

  At the end of the sixth year of the war, Li was sent to the rear to be trained for regular warfare. Nearly all the students and the teachers were hardened fighters and between them they worked out tactical problems. Li came out of this school a finished officer. He wanted no more of guerrilla warfare which he did not find romantic. He was scheduled with a number of other officers to go to Shantung. But he could not get through the Japanese blockade lines on the plains. So Li was sent once more into guerrilla country - this time in the mountains back of Anyang. Just before he arrived, a patriotic landlord had become involved in a quarrel with several of his neighbor landlords who leaned to the Japanese. The quarrel was over the use of water which flowed through villages occupied by all the landlords. The patriotic landlord was invited to a dinner by the other landlords and was murdered in the middle of a feast. His friends, relatives and villagers wanted revenge. Li undertook the task of organizing and training them. It was a hard job. Li had told the peasants about democracy and everyone took his words so seriously that they would not obey orders. In the middle of a battle, each man would devise his own plan and act accordingly. Then, when they saw fighting was not so much fun, everyone wanted to desert. Li couldn't reprimand anyone, for no one would submit to criticism. He had to take each man aside and lecture him individually. By dint of great patience, he built up an Armed Working Team. Still, he had to lead these soldiers on every occasion, for in danger they were likely to run away. Once, in trying to stem a precipitate retreat, he was wounded and his leg broken. His farmers, however, stood by him and dragged him out of danger.

  Because he had a bad limp - this time a real one - he never went on any expeditions that required much walking. Yet, his outfit was now so well trained that they operated well without him. As a matter of fact, Li was very proud of them and it was clear to see that he held them in much greater esteem than the militia.

  Li was one of the finest examples of a type of man that was by no means rare in Communist areas. He was that entrancing combination of man of action and intellectual. He had a grave, quiet manner that engendered trust. I often thought that if men of this type gained control of the Communist movement - and the question of power has not yet been completely settled among the Communists - then there would be little to fear from it. If the pure intellectuals gain the upper hand, then cultism may rule China.

  I wanted to go behind the lines on a raid with Li's men, for they seemed to me very efficient, but Li was called away and there was no other way to go behind the lines but with a militia outfit. Li had advised me against doing this, as the militiamen were ill trained. But I decided to go anyway.

  It would at least be interesting and it would be strictly people's war.