第九章 人民战争
 
CHAPTER IX
 

THE PEOPLE'S WAR

第四十节 地老鼠
40. The Field Mouse
  我参加民兵小分队,数次潜入国民党战线的后面,拯救过一个不幸的妇女,绑架过一个地主,杀掉过一个土匪。我不想过分渲染,把这一切说得多么了不起。因为正是这些为数众多的小分队在成千上万的中国村庄里的活动,才使装备很差的中国人民能够不断地打败部分由美国武装起来的蒋介石军队。我也不妄称我的同伴们有什么不寻常的地方或有什么特殊的才能。他们中除了极个别的例外,都是农民。他们都不是共产党员,但是他们拥护共产主义事业。因为他们像千千万万中国青年男女一样认识到,只有共产党才能把他们从悲惨生活中救出来,而蒋介石却一个劲儿地把他们往火坑里推。至于他们的观点是否错误,或者到头来证明他们所拥护的竟是一种更加糟糕的独裁制度,那要由历史来做出判断。 I SHALL not seek to romanticize the several expeditions I made with militiamen behind Kuomintang lines by pretending that there was anything unusual in rescuing a woman in distress, kidnaping a landlord or killing a bandit. For it was just such numerous groups operating through thousands of Chinese villages that were to enable the poorly armed people of China consistently to beat the troops of Chiang Kai-shek partially armed by America. Nor shall I pretend that there was anything unusual or particularly talented about my companions. They were, with rare exceptions, all farmers. Though none of them were Communists, they supported the Communist cause, because like thousands of other Chinese boys and girls, they saw in the Communists the only hope of rescue from the grim life they were living and into which Chiang Kai-shek was pressing them deeper every day. Whether their views were mistaken or whether they were committing themselves in the long run to a worse dictatorship is something history can decide.

  我参加的那个小分队的领导人,是一个三十四岁很机灵的出身农家的学生。他的名字叫唐文亮,因为他行动十分敏捷,绰号叫地老鼠。他是安阳县第七区人民武装委员会的领导人,手下有二百五十名民兵。这些民兵分成十人、二十人或者三十人的小分队进行活动。

  他个子矮小,只有五英尺多一点,体重不到一百斤,由于久经风霜,脸膛黑黑的。他上身穿着一件蓝制服,下身穿着一条农民式样的裤子。同许多人一样,他也是由于不满封建婚姻而投奔革命的。他十五岁那年,四十岁的父亲把他和素未见过面的新娘锁在一个屋子里,交代他要给家里传宗接代。一连三天三夜,地老鼠执拗地坐在地上。新娘则畏缩在炕上,一会儿哭,一会儿怯生生地想亲近他,但总是遭到他的拒绝。到了第四天,他父亲打开了门,唐文亮保持了童贞,但同时也成了不孝之子。

  当天夜里,他逃到镇后的山里,参加了一支新成立的八路军游击队。由于他知书断字,马上就让他当了班长。溺爱孙子的老奶奶骑了一条毛驴,追到游击队驻地来找人。她发现孙子正在打谷场上操练,便下了驴,当着战士们的面,上去一把揪住地老鼠的衣顿,骂了两句,用鞭杆朝他脑门敲了一记。她责备连长不该把人家的孩子拐走,并当场要部队把她的孙子还给她。地老鼠只好垂头丧气地跟着奶奶走了。战士们看了窃笑。

 

  The leader of the particular group to which I attached myself was a sly peasant student of twenty-four, named Tang Wen-liang, and nicknamed, because of his elusiveness, the Field Mouse. He was the head of the Armed People's Committee of the seventh district of Anyang County and he had about 250 militiamen under him who operated in groups of ten, twenty and thirty men.

  He was quite a tiny man, not more than five feet tall and about a hundred pounds in weight, with a wind-and-sun-tanned face, and he wore a blue uniform jacket over a pair of peasant pants. Like so many others, he had come into the revolution by way of an unhappy, feudal marriage. When he was fifteen, his father, a man of forty, had locked him in a room with a girl bride he had never seen before and laconically told him to produce a son. For three days and nights, the Field Mouse sat stubbornly on the floor while his bride huddled on the kang, alternately crying and alternately making timid advances which the boy always rejected. On the fourth day, when his father unlocked the door, the boy emerged not only a virgin but an unfilial son.

  In the night he ran into the hills back of his town and joined a newly guerrilla unit of the 8th Route Army. Because he could read and write, e was immediately made commander of a squad of troops. A doting grandmother harnessed a donkey, pursued the boy and rode to guerrilla headquarters. She found her grandson engaged in military maneuvers on a threshing ground. Before the eyes of his troops, she slid off the donkey, seized the Field Mouse by his jacket collar, curtly asked him a question or two and struck him a blow with a whip between the eyes. Berating the astonished company commander for stealing children from their homes, she then and there secured her grandson's release from the army. Mournfully lowering his head before the snickering of his troops, the Field Mouse followed his grandmother home.

  几天以后,父亲把他雇给蒋军一个团部为军官们当勒务兵。他不堪军官们的奴役和打骂,想法逃出这支军队。经过一番周密慎重的考虑,他同六个士兵分别结拜为“生死之交”。他把他们个别地领到一个树丛里,相互交换过生辰八字以后,他说:“好兄弟,现在咱俩对天起誓,患难相共,如违盟约,天诛地灭。”

  一天晚上,正好是他的一个结义兄弟站岗。地老鼠嘱咐他等自己溜出营房后,对空鸣枪。那是一个滴水成冰的夜晚,地老鼠直朝一个村子跑去,忠心的老奶奶带着一套农民衣服正在那里等着他。他高兴地回到了家。

  使他高兴的是,八路军的游击队不久占领了他们的村子。地老鼠马上参加了民兵,在土墙外边站岗放哨。游击队的领导看上了他,选派他去接受政治训练。他不久就当上了村干部。他决心不利用职权谋取私利。他向乡亲们宣布,他是新型的官员,决不营私舞弊。为了证明他一心为公的精神,在一次群众大会上,他把小姨子传来,批评她偷了邻居地里的西瓜,并责令她悔过。妻子同他吵了起来。她嚷道:“你恨我,才对我妹妹这样。“地名鼠回答说,“我办事不能有私心。”但是,他的妻子还是不依。

  几天以后,使地老鼠自己和他全家惊骇的是,当他无意中闯进一间房里时,他父亲正在那里同一个有夫之妇通奸。他又羞又怒,从一个民兵手里夺过手枪,朝父亲喊叫:“我毙了你!”同来的一个村干部花了很大气力夺了他的手枪。地老鼠要求县里逮捕他父亲,并惩办他的不道德行为。“作为干部,我没脸见人,”他说,“同时也给整个村公所丢了脸。”

  一时间,全家都恨开了他。“不孝之子”,他们狠狠地这样叫他。地老鼠重申他以前说过的那句话:“我不能徇私情。要我秉公办事,就必须对自己亲属和其他人一视同仁。”

  几个月后,他的父亲改悔了。他找到儿子,说:“是我当老子的不好。你教育了我。”地老鼠接受了这种赞扬,但是,仍然同父亲保持疏远。

  Within a few days his father hired him out as an orderly to the officers of one of Chiang Kai-shek's regiments. Menial tasks and officer blows led him to seek a method of escaping the army. With cunning deliberation, he formed "live-and-die" friendships with each of six different soldiers. One by one, he led these friends to a thicket of trees and, after swapping ancestral names with them, said:

  "Now, dear friend, let us both swear to die at the bottom of the blockhouse if we do not succor each other in distress."

  A few nights later, one of these carefully selected friends was on sentry duty. The Field Mouse persuaded him to fire into the air as he sneaked out of the encampment. The night was frosty and ringingly icy. The Field Mouse ran straight for a village where his faithful grandmother awaited him with a suit of peasant clothing. Happily, he made his way home.

  To his joy, 8th Route Army guerrillas soon occupied his village. The Field Mouse immediately enlisted as a militiatnan and stood sentry duty outside the dirt walls. He caught the eye of guerrilla leaders, was singled out for political training and rapidly thereafter became a village cadre. Determined not to use his position for personal profit, he announced to his neighbors that he was a new type of official and incorruptible. As proof of his devotion to public welfare, he summoned his sister-in-law before a mass meeting, accused her of stealing melons from a neighbor's field and demanded that she reform her character. His wife turned on him. "You did this to my sister because you hate me," she hissed. "There is nothing personal in my actions," said the Field Mouse, but his wife only snarled.

  A few days later, to his own and to his whole family's horror, he blundered into a house where his father was making love to another man's wife. In shame and rage, he seized a pistol from a militiaman.

  "I'll kill you," he shrieked at his father.

  With difficulty a fellow cadre disarmed him. The Field Mouse demanded that the county arrest and try his father for immorality.

  "This is a shame to me as a cadre," he said, "and a shame to the whole village government." For a while his whole family hated him. "An unfilial son," they remarked bitterly. The Field Mouse reiterated his previous statement. "There is nothing personal in my actions. If I am to be just I must be the same to my own relatives as to anyone else."

  Within a few months the father was a changed man. He went to his son, saying: "I have been a bad father. You have taught me a lesson." The Field Mouse accepted the praise but remained aloof.

  在地老鼠割断了联结自己和家庭的私情以及破除封建的乡土现念以后,当我见到他时,他已经全心全意地献身于中国革命了。他非常爽朗,谈笑风生,这完全出乎人们的预料。他是妇女们最喜欢的人,特别是村里三十岁上下的风流女人、有钱人家的小老婆、姨太太等。他虽然常利用这些娘儿们传送信件或刺探情报,并且同她们说说笑笑,但始终洁身自守。他说,他不喜欢女人,工作很忙,没有时间和女人鬼混,连作梦也不搞这一套。

  我这么说,一点儿也不夸张。地老鼠自己说,他梦见自己领导土改运动,梦见开飞机,梦见炮弹朝他打来,爆炸时的火光把他惊醒,就是没梦见过女人。

  “我不愿意和她们搞在一起,”他说,“我爹那次丑事丢尽了我们全家的脸,给我留下了很坏的印象。”

  然而,地老鼠在敌后的许多工作还是多亏了农村妇女的帮助。妇女们喜欢地老鼠,可能是因为他长得矮小,觉得有点儿可怜,好像需要母爱似的。另一方面,地老鼠对妇女很正派。这种态度反而博得妇女的好感。我猜想,这是因为他不像一般男人那样,要么虚情假意,要么粗鲁放肆。最后,妇女们结交地老鼠,也有的希望得到他的保护或替她们报仇。在地老鼠第一次带我去窦马庄那天夜里,我偶然发现了这一点。

  Having severed the ties of affection that bound him to his family and the ties of village feudalism that bound him to the past, the Field Mouse was, when I met him, dedicated heart and soul to the Chinese Revolution. Contrary to what might be expected, he was extremely gay and full of pranks. He was a favorite of women, especially voluptuous peasant women, second wives or concubines of rich farmers around the age of thirty, but, though he used them all as messengers and spies and liked to joke with them, he was not attracted to them sexually, claiming that he disliked women and had no time for them outside his work, not even in his dreams.

  I mean this quite literally. The Field Mouse claimed that he dreamed that he was leading the land reform, that he was flying an airplane, that he was being battered by artillery shells which burst into his sleep with horrid red glares, but never did he dream of women.

  "I don't like them that way," he said. "I got a bad impression from the way my father brought shame to our family."

  Yet the Field Mouse did much of his work behind the lines with the aid of peasant women. These women probably liked the Field Mouse because he was so tiny and appeared so helpless, as if he needed mothering. Then, the Field Mouse treated women with a kind of impersonality, which I suppose appealed to them because it was a different approach than either the mealy-mouthed formality or the brutal familiarity practiced by other Chinese males. Finally, the women made alliances with the Field Mouse much as they would with a protector or an avenger.

  I discovered this in an accidental sort of way on the night the Field Mouse first took me into the village of Toumachuang.

  这个村庄座落在无人地带的中部这本来就够独特的了,可是,还有另外的独特之处——村里的人相互都有血缘关系,都姓窦。这个村子已有近五百年的历史。明太祖从北平赶走蒙古人不久,这个村子就建立起来了。在村子一角的祠堂里,供着窦氏从始祖以下二十代列祖列宗的神主牌位。祠堂大门上的匾额写着四个大字:全村一姓。可是,现在这个家族的人们正在互相残杀。

  可以想象,这个村里的气氛有点异乎寻常。我们天黑时进村,民兵们在村子的一些制高点布了岗。地老鼠、陈翻译、刘明基和我肃穆地走在村里唯一的街道上。地老鼠出于安全的考虑,把我安置在一家住有两个妇女的屋子里,他自己则去探听情况。

  家里突然来了一个外国人,一定使这两个女人不知如何是好,因为我发现要引她们说话很困难。而且,她们俩还是一个被杀的土匪兼地主的老婆。我猜想,这也是使她们对陌生人沉默寡言的原因。

  大老婆约莫有四十五岁或五十岁的样子,比较呆板,话也说不清楚。第二房老婆较标致,年纪在三十岁左右。她时时用低垂的眼睛瞟人,虽然令人不快,却又有些动人。忠于职守的通讯员刘明基站在门口警卫着,我在陈翻译的帮助下开始询问这个女人的身世。因为这些问题同性关系和谋杀连系在一起。所以,她有些不愿意讲。但是,过了一会儿,她就打开了话匣子,给我讲了下面的故事。

  This village was located in the middle of no man's land, which would have made it peculiar enough, but there was the added fact that all the people in the village were related by blood and all had the same family name of Tou. The village had been established nearly half a millennium ago, shortly after the first emperor of the Mings drove the Mongols from the throne in Peiping. In an old temple at the corner of the village, there were the ancestral tablets of twenty generations dating back to the first Tou who had made his way into these hills. Above the door of this temple, there were inscribed the words: WE ARE ALL FROM ONE FAMILY. Yet the members of this family were now killing each other.

  It can be imagined that the atmosphere in this village was a little unusual. We had entered after dark and while some militiamen took up outposts on the heights above the village, the Field Mouse, Mr. Chen, Liu Ming-chi and I walked somberly down the one and only street. Depositing me for safety in a house occupied by two women, the Field Mouse went off to gather information.

  The sudden appearance of a foreigner in their home must have disconcerted the women, for I found it very difficult to make them talk. There was the added fact that both were wives of a murdered bandit-landlord and I supose that inclined them to reticence with a stranger.

  The first wife was about forty-five or fifty, dull and almost incoherent in her speech. The second wife, however, was a comely woman of about thirty, who had an irritating, but attractive way of looking up out of lowered, questioning eyes. While the faithful orderly, Liu Ming-chi, stood watch at the door, I began with the aid of Mr. Chen to question this woman about her life. Since it was bound up with sex and murder, she spoke somewhat reluctantly, but after a while she loosened up and told me the following story.

  她十七岁时,父母把她嫁到窦马庄给一个名叫窦喜功的富农当二房妻子。她不久便在丈夫的炕上取代了第一房妻子。但过些时候,她自己也同样被更年轻的第三房妻子取而代之了。三个老婆的服侍仍然满足不了喜功的淫欲。他每周还毫无顾忌地跑到一个贫农的妻子——名叫白花的女人的炕上两次。白花是本村里土生土长的,喜功从小就认得她。

  那个农民很可能知道,自己在地里干活时,白花正在同另一个男人睡在一起。但是,他只好忍气吞声,因为窦喜功是村里有势力的人物。窦喜功自己的妻子们对此也是毫无办法。她们看着白花送给她们丈夫的绣花袄,妒火中烧,有苦难言。

  白花和第三房老婆的关系倒处得很好。这一事实本身就足以说明中国妇女处于什么地位了。如果白花没有引起一个名叫窦马利的男人的淫念——必须承认,白花倒不是有意的——那么,窦喜功同白花的暖昧关系也就不会出事了。

  窦马利和喜功曾经同属一个剿匪队。在战争中,剿匪队在本村进行了敲骨吸髓的劫夺。他们俩在绑架老百姓和强占土地方面互相配合得很好。然而,窦马利对白花突然起了淫念,上述良好的合作关系便告破裂。

  白花爱英俊的喜功,而对丑陋的马利毫无感情。然而,马利是村里最有势力的人物,可以任意对白花施以强暴。就是这样,他还不满足。

  “我每次来,”他责备白花说,“你好像总是闷闷不乐。可是,每次喜功来时你就眉开眼笑。”一天夜里,喜功在村后的一间窑洞里同第三房老婆和儿子睡觉。马利带着一百个武装人员将窑洞包围起来,开了枪,当场打死了喜功的孩子。喜功抄起手枪,想杀出重围,但是被压了回来。这时全村人都躲在屋里不敢出来,马利在窑洞外边放起火熏死了喜功和他的第三房老婆。

  从此以后,窦马利独霸全村,高兴时便去奸污白花,并且继续强占民田。窦马利掠夺土地是非常残酷的。我遇到一个十一口人之家,其中七口人由于被他夺走了土地而饿死。马利的所做所为自然在村里树立了很多的敌人。但是,他的两个最大的敌人大概就是白花和喜功的第二房老婆。这一点把我们带回到地老鼠的故事,带回到中国革命和内战中去。

  如果认为这些桃色纠纷和谋杀同革命没有某种关系,那就错了。如果不是由于中国社会的封建性质,这类事情本来是不会发生的;即使发生了,其结果也是大不相同的。至于地老鼠,他同这些事情本来是风马牛不相关的。

  She had been sent by her parents to Toumachuang when she was seventeen to be the second wife of a rich peasant named Tou Hsikung. She soon displaced the first wife from the bed of her husband and was in turn displaced by a younger third wife. The ministrations of three wives, however, failed to satisfy Hsikung's lusty appetites and about twice a week he used to go boldly into the bed of a poor farmer's wife - a girl named White Flower, who was a native of the village and whom Hsikung had known since childhood.

  Possibly the farmer knew White Flower was lying with another man while he was in the fields, but if he did, there was little he could do about it because Tou Hsikung was a powerful man in the village. Tou Hsikung's wives could do nothing either. Only glancing sadly at the embroidered jacket White Flower sent their husband, they kept their silence.

  White Flower and the second wife remained on friendly terms, a fact which, in itself, says all that needs to be said about the position of Chinese women. Thus, despite Tou Hsikung's amorous adventures, everything would have been all right if White Flower had not attracted - against her will, it must be admitted - the attentions of a man named Tou Mali.

  Now Mali was a partner of Hsikung in a bandit suppression organization that had milked the village pretty dry during the war. Both men had worked harmoniously together in kidnaping people and amassing land, but the sudden lust of Tou Mali for White Flower broke up the happy partnership.

  White Flower loved the handsome Hsikung, but she had little affection for the rather ugly Mali, yet Mali, being the most powerful man in the village, forced himself on her pretty much when he pleased. Still, this did not satisfy him.

  "Whenever I come," he complained to White Flower, "you look glum, but every time Hsikung comes you look happy." One night Hsikung was sleeping with his third wife and son in a cave at the back of the village. Mali surrounded the cave with a hundred armed men and opened fire, instantly killing Hsikung's child. Hsikung grabbed his pistol and tried to shoot his way out but was driven back inside. While the whole village huddled indoors, Mali built a fire outside the cave and smoked Hsikung and his third wife to death.

  After that Tou Mali became the sole power in Toumachuang, he raped White Flower when he liked and continued to steal land from the people. So severe was this land plunder that I came across one family of eleven people in which seven had starved to death because Tou Mali had taken their land.

  These actions of Mali naturally made him many enemies in the village. But perhaps his two worst enemies were White Flower and Hsikung's second wife. And this brings us back to the Field Mouse, the Chinese Revolution and the civil war. For it would be a mistake to think that these sexual intrigues and murders did not have some connection with that revolution. Such affairs could not have happened in the first place - or would have had different results - if it had not been for the feudal nature of Chinese society. As for the Field Mouse's connection with these affairs, it seems to have been pretty much that of a god from the machine.

  日本人从这个地区撤退时,窦马利同他们一起跑掉了。接着,地老鼠来到村里开展土地改革运动。不久,国民党开进安阳县,地老鼠撤走了,窦马利又回来了。两人在这个村子里势均力敌,双方展开了一场争取民心的斗争。

  白花和被害的窦喜功的第二房老婆对窦马利怀有刻骨的仇恨,在这场斗争中自然站在地老鼠一边。他来村里时,她们暗中给他送情报。同地老鼠站在一起的不仅仅是这两个妇女,还有村里其他许多人。这种情况在某种意义上表明了中国革命的力量和感召力:窦马庄的大多数人站在一个外姓人——地老鼠一边,去反对自己的同宗——窦马利。 这两个人之间的斗争相当离奇古怪。窦马利和他的还乡团每星期在白天光顾窦马庄两、三次,而地老鼠一般情况下是在天黑后才进村。窦马利的势力原来比较强,但是,后来被地老鼠给削弱了不少。

  在削弱马利的过程中,地老鼠表现得很有耐心而且手法常常是巧妙的。地老鼠开始搞土改时,组织了一支民兵抗击日本人。国民党来的时候,他撤退了,多数民兵离开了地老鼠,因为他们不愿意离开家庭,丢下土地。这些民兵有的被窦马利杀害了,有的则被编到他的还乡团里去了。地老鼠常常在夜里来到窦马庄看望这些人的家属。他以他那种诱人并带着稚气、然而却是严肃的态度向这些妇女指出,让丈夫在土匪还乡团里混事是不合适的。

  “雁过留声,人过留名嘛。”地老鼠嘴边有许多这类谚语。他一引用这类谚语,马上就会有妇女相信,她们可怜的丈夫如果不脱离还乡团,就会受到子孙后代的怨恨和鄙视。结果,不少妇女去做自家男人的工作。于是这些男人有的离开了还乡团;有的当了地老鼠的内线。

 

  When the Japanese had retreated from this area, Tou Mali had gone with them. The Field Mouse had then come into the village and begun the land reform. Shortly afterward, the Kuomintang came into Anyang County, the Field Mouse fled and Tou Mali returned. The village, however, remained about midway between the two men, who waged a kind of warfare for the affections of the people.

  In this war, White Flower and the second wife of the murdered Tou Hsikung, nursing a bitter hatred, had quite naturally joined forces with the Field Mouse. Secretly, they gave him information when he came to the village. Not only these two women, but many other villagers had also leagued up with the Field Mouse. In a way, it is an indication of the strength and appeal of the Chinese Revolution that most of the people of Toumachuang sided with the Field Mouse, a stranger, against Tou Mali, their own relative.

  The struggle between these two men was a rather weird affair. Tou Mali and his Home Returning Corps visited Toumachuang two or three times a week in the daytime. The Field Mouse generally came after dark. Originally, Tou Mali had a much stronger force, but the Field Mouse had whittled it down.

  In weakening Mali, the Field Mouse was patient and often subtle. When he had first instituted the land reform in Toumachuang, the Field Mouse had organized a militia band to operate against the Japanese. When the Kuomintang came and he retreated, most of the militiamen had deserted him because they did not wish to leave their families or their land. Some of these militiamen Tou Mali had killed but others he had incorporated into his Home Returning Corps. The Field Mouse used to come into Toumachuang at night to see the wives of these men. In his charming, boyish, but serious way, he would point out to these women the impropriety of having a husband in a Home Returning Corps run by bandits.

  "When a bird passes, his music remains; when a man passes, his reputation remains." Quoting such proverbs as these, of which he had a great many at tongue tip, the Field Mouse would soon have a woman believing that her poor husband's descendants would hold him in loathing and contempt if he did not desert the Home Returning Corps. As a result, many women went to work on their husbands, some of whom deserted while others acted as spies for the Field Mouse.

  地老鼠对他以前的民兵有一种特殊的感情。他决不再收这些人到他现在的小分队里。但他也不记仇,而是对他们格外体谅。我记得,他以前的一个民兵被迫参加了还乡团,后来开了小差到一个煤窑里做工,生活非常苦。地老鼠听说了,有一次,他回村的时候给这位煤矿工人带了一块肥皂和一条毛巾,叫这个工人的妻子转交给他。这个人非常感激。他对妻子说:“我做了对不住老唐的事,可他还送东西给我。真过意不去。”

  这样,地老鼠在群众中树立了待人厚道的声望,削弱了还乡团头目窦马利的影响。这个家伙还意识不到这一点,仍想设计抓地老鼠。起初,他派人传话给地老鼠,说:“咱俩没有个人恩怨。你需要什么,请告诉我。”后来,他想安排与地老鼠见一面。

  地老鼠并不反对见面,但他担心这是个陷阱。“你带二十个人到山谷里来,我也带二十人。双方人员相距一里停下来,你和我各带一条枪单独靠近。你如果要谈,咱们就谈。要打,就打。”

  地老鼠最后用通用的誓言表示格守自己建议的诚意:“言而无信,天诛地灭”。

  对当地编民谣的人来说,不幸的是这次会面根本没有实现。不过窦马利还是发誓要杀掉地老鼠。他知道地老鼠惯于在夜里来窦马庄,于是在一天傍晚,他把村子包围起来,只留下进村的路,同时不准村里任何人外出,以免走漏消息,专等地老鼠落网。

  地老鼠的朋友们都很担心。村里有个巫婆摆出香案,请她最喜欢的神仙预卜吉凶。

  “老唐今天会来吗?”她问道。

  “他非常危险。”神仙以巧妙的语气回避这个问题。

  “那么,最好话你警告他,”巫婆说,“要不,我就再也不给你烧香了。”

  究竟这种威胁使神仙采取行动了没有,这是像我这样一个可怜的不信神的西方人所不敢回答的问题。不过,不管是什么原因,反正那天夜里地老鼠没到村里来,因而得以幸免。

  还有一次,窦马利派他的主要射手和几个打手去伏击地老鼠。唐没有防备,一个人进了窦马庄。白花飞跑出门,向他发出了警报。唐慌忙退出了村子,并召集了几个民兵去抓企图暗杀他的人。结果,在沿山坡的小路上展开了一场追击枪战。地老鼠打中了那个主要射手,另外两个人把帽子倒过来戴上,表示投降,最后缴了枪。

  地老鼠的活动不仅限于窦马庄,他还深入到无人地带以及国民党后方的纵深进行活动。在这些活动中,他结交了大量的朋友,但是,也树立了一些敌人。特别是各地还乡团,他们共同悬巨赏缉捕他,不管死的活的都要。我可以想象,人家宁可要死的,因为他是个非常机灵的人,毫无疑问,他可以逃出任何监牢。

  The Field Mouse had a peculiar affection for his ex-militiamen. He would never take them back in any of his militia corps, yet he bore them no grudge and went out of his way to be kind to them. I remember one of his former militiamen who had been forced into a Home Returning Corps and then had deserted and gone to work in a coalpit. He was living a rather hard life and the Field Mouse heard about it. The next time the Field Mouse came to the village he brol4ght a piece of soap and a towel which he asked the worker's wife to give him. The man was so grateful, he wept and told his wife: "We treated Old Tang [Field Mouse] so badly and here he sends me presents. It's too much."

  Thus, the Field Mouse built up his reputation for kindness and broke down the influence of Tou Mali, head of the Home Returning Corps, among the people. The Home Returning Corps leader was not unaware of this and he began to set traps for the Field Mouse. First, he sent a messenger over to say: "There is no personal enmity between us. If you need anything, just tell me." Then he wanted to arrange a meeting with the Field Mouse.

  The Field Mouse was not averse to meeting Mali, but he was afraid of a trap. Finally, he sent back the following word: "you come into the valley with twenty men and I'll come with twenty men. A li [1/3 of a mile] from each other, we will stop our forces. Then you and I will come out alone. You will carry a gun and I will carry a gun. If you want to talk, we will talk. If you want to shoot, we will shoot."

  By way of showing the sincerity of his offer, the Field Mouse ended up with the usual oath: "May I die at the bottom of the blockhouse, if I do not keep my word."

  Unfortunately for the local ballad makers, this meeting never came about. Yet, Tou Mali swore he would kill the Field Mouse. Knowing the habit of the Field Mouse to come into Toumacbuang in the night, Tou Mali surrounded the village one day just at dusk. He left the path to the village open so that Tang could walk into his trap, but let nobody out that could warn him.

  The Field Mouse's friends were greatly worried. One village witch got out her incense table and called down a favorite god to find out what was going to happen.

  "Will Old Tang come today?" she asked.

  "He is in great danger," answered the god, dodging the question with the agility of all oracles.

  "Well, you better warn him," said the witch, "or I will stop burning incense.

  Whether this threat caused the god to take action is a question that a poor Western unbeliever such as myself would not dare answer. But whatever the reason, the Field Mouse did not come to the village that night and so was saved.

  Another time, Tou Mali sent his chief gunmen with a couple of henchmen to ambush the Field Mouse. Unsuspecting, Tang walked alone into Toumachuang. White Flower flew out of doors and warned him. Beating a hasty retreat, Tang collected a couple of militiamen and set out to capture his would-be assassin. A running gun fight ensued along the hilly paths. When the Field Mouse plugged the chief gunman, the other two turned their hats around in token of surrender and gave up their arms.

  The Field Mouse by no means confined his activity to Toumachuang, but roved far and wide in no man's land and behind the Kuomintang lines. In doing this, he made a great many friends, but also some enemies, especially among various Home Returning Corps who chipped together and put up a large reward for his capture, dead or alive. Preferably dead, I should imagine, for the Field Mouse was such a slippery rascal that he undoubtedly would have escaped from any prison.

  地老鼠的一些做法相当机敏新颖,这说明他确实很会动脑筋。他发现,在敌后新开辟的村子里开展宣传工作时,人们在夜里不敢出门,这样他就没办法召集会议同群众见面。当然,不可能想像他会破门而入。到他想做工作的对象的家里去,于是他想出来一套接触老乡的特殊办法。

  一天夜里,他带着十个人来到一个村子。这个村子一直对他在夜里光顾持反对态度。他把手下的人集中在衔中央,围成一圈,然后大声喊道:“现在开会。”他做了一个简短的讲话,声明他是八路军,然后问大家有啥问题要问。他的一个民兵学着老大娘颤抖的声音说:“我们知道你们八路军非常好,可是,你们为啥不常来呢?“

  地老鼠回答这个问题以后,民兵们有的学着农民的声音,有的装着农妇的腔调,一个个大声地发起言来,使躲在屋里的人们以为外边正在郑重其事地开会。

  为了了解这个把戏——人们称它为“没人参加的会议”“的效果,第二天地老鼠派一个民兵到村里听取人们的议论。听到人们躲躲闪闪地相互询问,

  “昨天夜里你参加会了吗?”

  “唉,没有啊,”有人马上回答啦。

  “你真的没去开会吗?”

  人人都认为别人参加会了,只不过是不敢承认罢了。结果,地老鼠下次再来到村里召集会议时,男男女女就都穿好衣服出来开会了。

  在离敌占区不太远的村子里,地老鼠常常在白天召集会议。这类会议很简单。男男女女集合在一个院子里或一块空地上,随便地围成个圆圈,地老鼠站在中间发表讲话。妇女们总是带着纺车去开会。也有的抱着吃奶娃娃,边听地老鼠讲话,边给娃娃喂奶。

  Some of the Field Mouse's tricks were quite cute and showed an inventive mind. In starting propaganda work in new villages behind the lines, he found that people were scared to open their doors at night, so he had no way to call meetings and get in touch with his public. It was unthinkable that he break into the homes of people he wished to impress, so he devised a peculiar scheme of his own for contacting the people.

  One night he took ten of his men to a village that had hitherto denied his ardent night-time wooing. Parking his men in a circle in the middle of the street, he called out in a loud voice: "The meeting is now open." He gave a short speech announcing that he was from the 8th Route Army. Then he asked if anyone had any questions. Imitating the quavering voice of an old woman, one of his militiamen said: "We know you 8th Route Army are very good, but why don't you come more often?"

  When the Field Mouse had answered this question, his men, one by one, imitating farmers or their wives, spoke up so that the villagers in their houses would think a regular meeting was really taking place.

  To judge the effect of this trick, which became known as the Meeting at Which Nobody Was Present, the Field Mouse sent one of his militiamen to the village the next day to listen to the gossip. He heard people slyly asking each other:

  "Were you at the meeting last night?"

  "Oh, no," would come the answer. "But there must have been a lot of people there."

  "Are you sure you weren't there?"

  Everybody believed everybody else was at the meeting, but was afraid to admit it. As a result, the next time the Field Mouse came, both men and women put on clothes and came outdoors when he called a meeting.

  In villages, not too far behind the lines, the Field Mouse often opened meetings in the daytime. Such meetings were very simple. Both men and women would gather in a courtyard or in a field and sit in an informal circle while the Field Mouse addressed them. The women most always brought their spinning wheels and also their babies which they breast-nursed during the Field Mouse's speech.

  地老鼠不单单是个宣传家,他还会写文章哩。有一天,我们俩人沿一条小山路走着,地老鼠突然停下来,指着贴在一棵树上的一张约五英寸见方的油印小报说:“那里面有我的一篇文章。”我走近一看,确实有他的署名——唐文亮,印在标题的下面。那是一篇大约有七十五个字的短文,叙述在敌后的一次袭击。看来老唐对自己的作品很得意。

  地老鼠把自己所有的活动都简要地记录下来。有一天,他念了笔记本中所记的有关他的三十人民兵小分队一个半月活动的小结。我把它摘录如下:保卫战十一次;敌后活动二十一次;遭遇战四次;出击七次;宣传会十一次;侦察敌情八次,投信三封;埋地雷六次,炸毁碉堡三个;烧毁村大门七个、岗楼一座,俘虏十九名还乡团员、一个国民党连长、一个副官和一个勤务兵;缴获文件五份、铁锹四把、步枪十七支、手枪二支、小米三十斗、敌人徽记四十个、现款六万元。

  必须承认,对于一支三十人的小分队来说,这个记录是相当可观的。

  唐的笔记本中最后两项的内容,说明这个足智多谋的小伙子多么机灵、大胆,他也许有点胡来,甚至会耍两面手法。

  Besides being a propagandist, the Field Mouse was also a literary man of sorts. One day when the two of us were walking along a mountain trail, the Field Mouse suddenly halted and pointed to a small mimeographed newspaper, about five inches square, pasted to a tree. "I have an article in that issue,?he said. And sure enough, on going closer, I saw his by-line - Tang Wen-liang - printed under the biggest headline in the paper. It was a rather simple story of some seventy-five characters about a raid behind the lines, but Old Tang seemed rather proud of his effort.

  The Field Mouse kept simple notes on all his operations. One day he read from his notebook a summary of a month and a half's activity of one of his militia bands of thirty men, which I give below.

  11 defensive engagements; 21 operations behind the lines; four meeting engagements; seven attacks, 11 propaganda meetings; eight intelligence gathering operations; three letters delivered; six mining expeditions; exploded three blockhouses; burned seven village gates and one tower; captured 19 Home Returning Corps members, one Kuomintang captain, one adjutant and an orderly, five documents, four shovels, 17 rifles, two pistols, 30 tou of millet, 40 enemy insignia and $60,000.

  A pretty busy record for thirty men, it must be admitted.

  Behind the last two items in Tang's notebook hung a story that illustrates the cunning, the daring, perhaps the rashness and even the duplicity of this many-wiled boy.

  一天夜里,地老鼠通过一个情报员得到消息说,在敌人后方纵深的某村里,一个姓潘的地主带领还乡团在一个石头筑起的大院里扎了营。情报员报告说,还乡团的劫掠弄得老百姓不胜其苦;虽然这个还乡团实力较强,但如对它进行奇袭,有可能攻下来。得到这个情报后,地老鼠在天黑时出发,晚上十点左右到了那个村子。

  他带领战士翻过围墙,跳进院子里,但发现他们被另外一道墙挡住了。这墙太高,爬不过去,他们马上在路上挖洞,打算让唐钻过去。这时,屋里的人被惊醒了,地老鼠等人被迫改而从正面攻打大门。等他们冲进里院时,发现潘带着还乡团早己跑掉了。经过搜查,他们在床下找到一个光着身子的还乡团员和六万元钱以及四十枚徽记——战果不算很大。

  地名鼠对这次失败感到泄气,想追击跑掉的还乡团,但转过来一想,不能在敌占区孤军深入,因为那样做,敌人在白天会发现他们的。他眉头一皱,计上心来。

  “戴上这些徽记,”他告诉他的身穿农民服装的民兵们。“咱们伪装成潘家的还乡团。”

  大家伪装好了。那个被俘的还乡团员也穿好衣服,夹在他们中间,使他们的伪装更像了。地老鼠便向敌占区的腹地挺进。在头一个村子里,人们被枪声惊醒,起了床。

  “我们遭到了八路军的攻击,”地老鼠说,“你们这里见过八路军吗?我们是潘某人率领的还乡团。”听地老鼠这么一说,一个穿戴整齐的女人走过来对他说,“我儿子也在潘的还乡团里。他是不是跟你们在一起?”

  地老鼠迅速地思考怎么回答。

  “我们不是一个班的,”他说,“我们被打散了,现在正设法集合。你见过其他的人吗?”

  村民们指点唐向东走。他们所到的第二个村子恰好是唐部下一个名叫平泽的民兵的家乡。因为全村都知道平泽是八路的民兵,所以,他在黑暗中迅速地躲到一个朋友家里去了。这时候,地老鼠把村里其他人都叫起来,警告他们说,八路军可能打过来。

  他故意问几个地主家里的人,如果八路军来了他们怎么办。

  “啊,我们可害怕八路军哩。”一个男人回答说。

  “听说他们强奸妇女。”一个富农的老婆说。“不要怕,”地老鼠说,“我们会保护你们的。”正在这时候,人们看见平泽走了出来。地老鼠将计就计。他先装作大吃—惊的样子,接着破口大骂:“平泽,狗日的!我这回可算抓住你了。”他回头对两个民兵喝道,“快,把他抓起来,拉出去给我毙了!”两个民兵把平泽拉了出去。不一会儿,村外传来两声枪响。

  “我要叫那些狗日的知道我们潘家还乡团的厉害!”地老鼠说。

  村里有钱的人真以为平泽被枪毙了,同时,又看到地老鼠是个强而有力、说到做到的人,马上围过来讨好他、赞扬他,并咒骂八路军。地老鼠一声不响地听着。村里其他人开始时很害怕,不敢走到伪装的潘家还乡团面前,后来看到这种热闹场面,都走到街上来了,其中有个认识地老鼠的姑娘。

  “你们同还乡团的人一起在这里搞什么名堂?”她把他拉到一边问道。“我被俘了,”地老鼠低着头难过地说。

  “哎,真糟糕!”女的说,“我能帮你忙吗?”

  地老鼠感到这场闹剧已经演得差不多了,便跳到一个碾盘上叫大家注意。

  “我们骗了大家,”他说,脸上显出严厉的神态,我们是八路的民兵。”在场的不少人一惊非同小可。

  “不过,人家也骗了你们,说我们许多坏话,”地老鼠继续说说,“我们不是土匪、强盗。我们不抢老百姓的东西,不奸淫妇女。我们今天夜里来到达里为的是让你们看看我们是什么样的人。你们有些人说我们的坏话,一方面是由于不了解情况,一方面是由于害怕。我们知道,在这种时候,不少人只好当两面派。所以,我们不计较那些话。不过,从现在起,国民党再说我们什么坏话,你们应该懂得,那是谎话。今后,我们还要常来。乡亲们有困难,我们一定来帮忙。如果国民党征兵、拉夫,你们就跑到我们那边去,我们会给你们安置,使你们能生活下去。”

  经过这番亮相之后,地老鼠留下十个人,自己带着其余的人到另一个村子里去了。在那里,他仍然用这种计策。他问附近是否有潘的还乡团的人,有人告诉他说,好像有个姓魏的连长这时正在当地的破鞋——黑妮的家里。唐立即赶到那里。他打着耀眼的手电,发现那个连长和黑妮正在炕上。男的吓得缩到女的背后。

  “你们是什么人?”他问道。

  地老鼠把手电简照到一个民兵身上佩戴着的潘的还乡团徽记上。连长笑了,说:“我还以为你们是八路呢,我也是潘某人的还乡团的。”

  “给我抓起来!”地老鼠大喝一声。民兵把他从炕上揪了下来。

  “不要误会,”连长说,“咱们是一家呀。这里还有潘的还乡团的弟兄可作证明。”“领我们去找他们,”地老鼠说。这样,他们又俘虏了四个人。这时,天已放亮,他迅速集合民兵,开拔回去了。路上经历几次惊险的遭遇,包括一场短促的枪击战,唐平安地返回到自己的地区。

  这就是一个十分卓越的小伙子——地老鼠的英雄事迹。我越是了解他,越是对他发生好奇心。这个人似乎有着非常矛盾的性格。他有时看上去像个妈妈的宝宝,有时又像个歹徒。他有着宣传家的气质,同时也有着诗人的心灵。他是个冷静的现实主义者,同时又是个幻想家。他有柔肠,又有侠骨。他既多诈,又坦诚;既勇敢无畏,又小心谨慎;既慷慨大方,有时又贪得无厌。外表上,他开朗、朴实和坦率,然而,又令人莫测高深。他的全部性格是难以捉摸的。但是不管怎么说,我还是很喜欢这个人。

  关于地老鼠的事情已经写得够多了。这里,我想叙述一下我同他第一次去敌占区的情形。正如读者将会看到的那样,这次执行的任务,同地老鼠的性格一样充满着矛盾。不过,整个中国革命就是一堆矛盾。

  One night, the Field Mouse had received, through a spy, news that a Home Returning Corps under a landlord named Pan had set up barracks in a large stone mansion in a certain village deep behind the enemy lines. The spy reported that the people were suffering much from the depredations of this corps, which was fairly strong, but which might be successfully attacked and maybe captured if taken by surprise. Armed with this information, the Field Mouse set out at dusk and reached the village around ten o'clock in the evening.

  Climbing over a wall surrounding the house, Tang and his men dropped into a courtyard, but found themselves blocked by another wall too high to climb. Immediately they began to dig a hole in this wall, intending to squeeze Tang through. Those inside woke up and the Field Mouse and his men were forced to abandon their surprise tactics and make a direct assault on the gate. Bursting into the inner courtyards, they found that the Pan Corps had already gone. A search revealed one naked member of Pan's Corps under a bed, sixty thousand dollars, and forty insignia - not a very good haul.

  Disappointed at his failure, the Field Mouse wanted to pursue the Home Returning Corps, but realized he could not go far as he would be caught behind the lines at daylight. Then a brilliant idea came to him.

  "Put on those insignia," he told his peasant-clad militiamen. "We shall be the Pan Corps."

  So disguised and with the captured member of the corps now fully dressed and in their ranks as a further aid to dissimulation, the Field Mouse set out deeper into enemy territory. At the first village, some people aroused by the sound of firing were already up.

  "We have been attacked by the 8th Route Army," said the Field Mouse. "have you seen any of them around here? We're from the Pan Corps."

  On hearing this, a well-dressed woman came up to the Field Mouse and said: "My son is in the Pan Corps. Is he with you?"

  The Field Mouse thought fast.

  "We're from a different section," he said. "we became separated. We're trying to unite. Have you seen any other of our men?"

  The villagers directed Tang toward the east. The second village they came to happened to be the native place of one of Tang's militiamen, named Pingtze. Since the whole village knew he was with the 8th Route militia, Pingtze went quickly in the dark to the home of one of his friends. In the meantime, Tang aroused the rest of the village and warned them that the 8th Route Army might come.

  Slyly, he asked the members of a few landlord families how they would feel if that happened.

  "Oh, we are very afraid of the 8th Route Army," answered a man.

  "We hear they rape women," said a rich peasant's wife.

  "Don't be afraid," said the Field Mouse, "I'll protect you."

  Just at this moment, the villagers saw Pingtze coming out of a house. Again, the Field Mouse thought fast. Pretending to be greatly startled, he advanced in a well-simulated rage on his own militiaman.

  "Pingtze!" he said. "You son-of-a-bitch, at last I've caught up with you."

  Then turning to two of his militiamen, he said: "Quick, grab him and take him outside and execute him." The militiamen led Pingtze away. From beyond the village came the sound of a shot.
  
  "That'll teach these pigs not to fool with the Pan Corps men," said the Field Mouse.

  Believing that Pingtze had really been executed and seeing that the Field Mouse was apparently a strong, determined man, the rich men of the village began to fawn on him, praising him to the skies and cursing the 8th Route Army. The Field Mouse ealmly drank in all their remarks. In the meantime, other elements of the village, who had at first been too scared to come out in front of the supposed Pan Corps men were attracted by the excitement and now came into the street. Among them was a girl who personally knew the Field Mouse.

  "What are you doing here with the Pan men," she said, getting him to one side.

  "I've been captured," said the Field Mouse sadly hanging his head.

  "Oh, you poor boy!" said the woman. "Can I do anything?"
Feeling that he had let this farce go far enough, the Field Mouse mounted a roller and called for attention.

  "We have deceived you," he said, his face grim. "we are militiamen of the 8th Route Army."
His words drew a frightened gasp from many of his listeners.

  "But you have been deceived about us," continued the Field Mouse.

  "We are not bandits. We do not rob people and we do not rape women. We have come here tonight to show you what we really are. Some of you have spoken badly of us. Partly because you have not known better, partly because you were afraid. We know many of you have to become two faced in times like these. So we do not hold these remarks against you. But hereafter, when the Kuomintang says something against us, you will know it is a lie. We shall return often now and if you are in trouble we will help you. If the Kuomintang starts a conscription drive run over to us and we will find you jobs so you can keep alive."

  Having revealed himself, the Field Mouse left ten of his men behind and went on to a further village. Here, he practiced the same deception again, but when he asked if there were Pan Corps men in the vicinity, he heard that a certain Captain Wei was at that very moment in the house of a girl named Dark Maid, the local "broken shoe."

  Tang immediately went to the house. Flashing his light in a room, he discovered the captain in bed with Dark Maid. The captain drew behind the girl in fright.

  "Who are you?" he asked.

  The Field Mouse shone his light on the Pan insignia one of the militiamen was wearing. The captain laughed: "I thought you were 8th Route; I'm from the Pan Corps, too."

  "Arrest that man," said the Field Mouse. His men dragged the captain from bed.

  "Don't make a mistake," said the captain. "I'm the same side as you. There are other Pan men here who can prove it.?"

  "Lead us to them," said the Field Mouse, who, in this way, captured four more men. By now it was daylight. Quickly picking up his other militiamen, Tang started back home. After several adventures, including a brief fire fight, Tang safely returned to his own lines.

  Such were the exploits of the Field Mouse's truly remarkable boy. The more I got to know him, the more he intrigued me. He seemed a very contradictory character. Sometimes he appeared like a mother's boy, at other times - a thug. He had the temperament of a propagandist and yet the heart of a poet, too. A cold realist, he was at the same time a dreamer. Gentle, he was also rough; cunning, yet frank; courageous but also cautious; generous yet sometimes greedy. On the surface, he appeared open, simple and frank, yet he defied analysis and his whole character was elusive. At any rate I grew quite fond of him.

  But that is enough of the Field Mouse. Here I would like to describe the first expedition I made behind the lines with him. As you will see, this mission was as contradictory as the Field Mouse himself. But then the whole Chinese Revolution was a mass of contradictions.