第十一章 内战

CHAPTER XI

CIVIL WAR

第四十五节 一位起义将军
45. Why a General Revolts
  如果不了解一九一一年至一九二六年间崛起的一些风云人物的情况,就不可能了解中国的军队。那些人都是失去生计的识字不多的青年农民,本来是无名小卒,突然几乎一夜之间就成了大帅、将军和军阀。他们统治的地区,其面积之大和人口之稠密,不下于当今的许多欧洲国家。这些显赫一时的中国统治者们在国外的声誉很坏。许多人认为,他们的军队只不过是用来夺取金钱、权力和女人的一种武器,他们之间主要是用“银弹”打仗,而发给士兵的军饷则是鸦片。上述情形,很多老牌督军确实如此,但也有一些小的军阀,不为贪婪的权欲所驱使,而是怀有浪漫色彩的、但多少有点迷乱的高尚理想。实际上他们像足戏班子里的丑角,在历史上最大的一出悲剧——东、西方两个世界的冲突中跑龙套。

  高树勋将军就是这样的一个人物。他不久前背叛了蒋介石。现在,他坐在山西省的一间小茅屋里,向我叙述他自己的经历。

NOBODY can understand the Chinese army without understanding something about that fascinating group of half-educated, dispossessed farm boys who suddenly rose from obscurity between 1911 and 1926 and almost overnight became field marshals, generalissimos and warlords, with dominion over regions as large and populous as many modern European states. These quondam rulers of China have had a bad reputation abroad. Many people think they employed their armies merely as weapons to amass wealth, power and concubines, that they fought battles principally with "Silver bullets" and that they paid their soldiers in opium. Some of this was true enough of many of the old provincial generals, but many of these petty militarists were not driven by insatiable power lusts, but by high ideals of a romantic, if somewhat confused, nature. Appearing like vaudeville clowns, they were in reality minor actors in one of the greatest tragedies of history - the collision between the East and West.

  Such a man was General Kao Hsu-hsun, who, having deserted Chiang Kai-shek, now sat before me in a hut in Shansi Province telling me the story of his life.

  关于高将军的身世,值得注意的倒不是因为他是一位放荡的军阀,被共产党包围后无处可逃,为了活命便投降。相反,他的不凡之处在于:这位出身于破产中农家庭的没有文化的农村青年,二十几岁就当上了军长,中年以后竟重新燃起青年时代的理想,抛弃了权势地位,最后,不顾特务的监视和部属的劝阻,背叛了蒋介石,毅然率领整整一个军投向他一度极不喜欢的中国共产党。

  农民出身的高树勋将军,五十岁开外,性格开朗,古铜色的脸庞,相貌不凡。当他将自己的身世向我介绍后,我才开始深刻地了解在过去三十七年的战争和革命中,使多少中国男男女女的生活受冲击的悲剧性原委。说来也奇怪,高树勋之所以走上曲折的道路,最后走到中国共产党的阵营里,完全是西方资本主义冲击中国人生活的结果。高树勋小的时候,没上过学。十六岁时,他到了北平。当时辛亥革命爆发后不久,虽然他为推翻了帝制而振奋,但更为找不到工作而烦恼。饥寒交迫之中,他不得不借高利贷,买个托盘在前门外卖卷烟。所谓前门,就是拱卫北平内城门户的雄伟的石砌城楼。

  卖的烟都是外国工厂生产的,这使高树勋感到很不是滋味。他说,“为洋人卖烟,我很气愤。为什么钱都让他们赚去?中国为什么不能自己生产卷烟?”他的结论是由于中国不强。看看守卫着北京各国大使馆的洋兵,他断定一个国家强大与否,取决于它的军队。于是他自愿参加了基督将军冯玉祥的部队。

  Now the remarkable thing about General Kao as a study in character development is not that he was a dissolute warlord who was surrounded and cut off by the Communists and surrendered only to save his own life. On the contrary, the uniqueness of his position is this: that this illiterate son of a bankrupt middle farmer, rising to become general of an army when he was still in his twenties, was nevertheless able, when past middle age, to re-create the ideals of his youth, to discard his position of power and finally, in spite of fear of the secret police and the pleadings of his fellow-generals, to disown his loyalty to Chiang Kai-shek and deliberately to bring his whole army over to the Chinese Communists whom he had once thoroughly disliked.

  As Kao - handsome man of fifty, with the open, bronzed, face of a farmer turned soldier - told me about himself, I began to understand with renewed force the tragic necessity that has warped the life of so many men and women during the last thirty-seven years of war and revolution in China. For strange as it may seem,~ it was the impact of Western capitalism on Chinese life that first set Kao's footsteps on a tortuous road that finally led him into the camp of Chinese Communism. Kao never went to school as a boy. When sixteen, he came to Peiping. The 1911 Revolution had just occurred, but Kao, though excited by the overthrow of the emperor, was much more concerned by the fact that he could not get a job. Hungry and poorly dressed, he borrowed money from a usurer, bought himself a small tray and peddled cigarettes outside the Chien Men Gate - that forbidding stone battlement that guards the entrance to Peiping's Tartar Walls.

  Kao was depressed by the fact that all the cigarettes in his tray were manufactured by foreign concerns. "It irritated me," he said,"to sell cigarettes for foreigners. Why should they get all the profits? Why could not China make cigarettes herself ??He concluded this was because China was not strong. Looking around at foreign soldiers guarding the embassies in Peking, he decided that the power of a country lay in its army. So he enlisted as a private in the forces of the Christian General Feng Yu-hsiang.

  “在冯玉祥部队里,”他说,“我逐渐认识到帝国主义列强的图谋。其中最恶劣的是日本。每年五月七日,冯将军都要集合全体将士在操场上,向大家宣读日本对华的‘二十一条要求’,读完大哭。此事使我深受感动,很快就产生了必须革命的强烈思想,并且十分信仰孙中山先生的学说,特别是他的民族主义。”

  一九二六年,高树勋当了冯玉祥部下的第十二师师长。一九三七年,蒋介石高喊着孙中山先生的口号,为打倒军阀而举行北伐。这使高树勋非常鼓舞。但是一九二七年的一连串事件和蒋介石的残暴行为,使高为之心寒。他说,“蒋介石走上了军阀的老路,这位我很失望。”但他还没有完全灰心丧气,他还有自己的抱负。到了一九二九年,他升任冯玉祥部第九军军长。他同孙连仲将军一起去边远的西北地区(总计他和孙共事了二十年)。他一度担任青海省省长。后来,他站在冯玉祥一边与蒋介石打了一场时间不长但很激烈的内战。冯玉祥战败了,其部属包括高树勋那个军大都被收编为蒋介石的国军,遣往江南去打共产党。

链接:冯玉祥及西北军部分将领的结局(一)

链接:冯玉祥及西北军部分将领的结局(二)

  "Under Feng," said Kao, "I came to realize the imperialist designs of the great powers. Worst of all was Japan. Every May 7th, Feng used to assemble all of us on the parade ground and read to us Japan's twenty-one demands. Then he would weep. I was much affected and soon I developed a deep feeling about the necessity for revolution and a great belief in the doctrines of Dr. Sun Yat-sen, especially his principle of nationalism."

  In 1926, Kao became commander of Feng Yu-hsiang's 12th Division. When Chiang Kai-shek marched north in 1927, with the slogans of Dr. Sun Yat-sen on his lips and with the intention of throwing out the warlords, Kao's enthusiasm ran very high. The events of 1927 and the despotism of Chiang Kai-shek somewhat disillusioned Kao. "Chiang took up the same old role of the warlords," he said. "I was depressed." His disillusionment, however, was not complete, and Kao still remained ambitious. By 1929, he became commander of the 9th Army under Feng. He went to the far-distant northwest with General Sun Lien-chung with whom he served for twenty years. For a time he was governor of Chinghai Province. Then he fought on Feng's side in a brief but bitter civil war with Chiang. Feng was defeated, and most all of his armies, including Kao's, were incorporated into the national army under Chiang Kai-shek and sent south of the Yangtze River to fight the Communists.

  高树勋保持了军长的职位,但他心情不舒畅。他在二十年的军队生涯中,形成了一种很坏的习惯,那就是学会了读书识字。他这个人胸有抱负,精力充沛,一贯如此。升迁得也很快,在短短时间里就从一个摆摊卖烟卷的失业的流浪汉一跃而当上了省长和军长,不过他一直保持着某种理想主义。由于读书和多年战争的影响,他逐渐得出这样一个结论:蒋介石背叛了孙中山先生的三民主义,把“革命”二字当作他愚弄人民群众的手段。一天,他读了一篇描述沙皇统治下农奴生活的文章,对照自己周围的情形,他感到中国的现状亦是如此。他看到自己把共产党赶走了,国民党官僚却跑来,又把农民的土地夺走。他很难过,觉得孙中山先生的“三民主义”只是停留在那些官吏的口头上而已。另外,他是同自己的部队同甘共苦的,他不明白为什么那些官吏的生活竟然比他高几倍,而他们毕竟是靠着他才能保持官职的。

  他终于忍无可忍了。三十年代初,他跟谁也不说,便放弃了军长之职,跑到天津。蒋介石发出了通缉今,但高树勋躲进英租界,平安无事。一九三三年,他前往张家口,参加了他的老上司冯玉祥领导的抗日运动。运动很快被震压下去后,他当上了河北省公安局长。

  Here Kao maintained his position as army commander, but he was unhappy. During his twenty years in the army, he had developed a very bad habit. He had learned to read. Ambitious and energetic as he had been till now, and swift and successful as had been his rise from jobless wanderer and cigarette peddler to governor and army commander, there had always remained in him a strain of idealism. Influenced by reading, influenced also by many years of war, he gradually came to the conclusion that Chiang Kai-shek had betrayed the principles of Dr. Sun Yat-sen and made of the revolution a thing to mock the hopes of the mass of the people. One day, having read an article about the life of serfs in Czarist Russia, he looked about him and thought that conditions were much the same in China. Embittered when he saw the Kuomintang bureaucrats come in and seize the land of the peasants that he, himself, had freed from the Communists, he thought that Dr. Sun's principle of the "Livelihood of the people" existed only in the mouths of officials. Then, too, living among his troops, he wondered why the officials should live so much better than he, who was preserving them in power.

  Suddenly he could stand no more, and in the early 1930's without a word to anyone, he gave up his command in the field, and fled to Tientsin. Chiang put out an order for his arrest, but Kao remained safe, hiding in the British Concession. In 1933, he went to Kalgan and joined a movement against the Japanese led by his old commander Feng Yu-hsiang. The movement was quickly suppressed and Kao became head of the Public Safety Bureau of Hopei.

  日本侵入北平后,他带领他的警察到农村打游击。他指挥着三万人,在敌后坚持了五年。然而,八路军到处扩大势力,很快把他挤得无立足之地,于是他率部南渡黄河。

  他终于安全到达了后方,就前往中国战时的首都重庆。“在那儿,我感到头痛,”他说,“所见所闻,令人厌恶。没有一个政府机关真正办事。官员们只是等侯着蒋介石的旨令。贪污行贿成风。一位缝衣针厂老板请我吃饭,他告诉我,他须为厂里的每个工人向蒋介石的特务缴纳十万元,才能免服兵役。这可把我气坏了!”

  When Japan captured Peiping, Kao led his gendarmes into the countryside to fight a guerrilla war. For five years, he remained behind the Japanese lines, commanding a force of thirty thousand men. The 8th Route Army, expanding everywhere, however, soon left him no place to live and he came across the Yellow River with his troops.

  Now, at last safe in the rear lines, Kao went to the then capital of China at Chungking. "I got a headache there," he said. "I was disgusted by what I saw. No government office was doing anything. All the officials were just waiting for Chiang Kai-shek's orders. Everyone was grafting. A needle factory owner invited me to dinner and told me he had to pay the Special Service agents of Chiang Kai-shek one hundred thousand dollars for every worker in his factory so that they would not be conscripted. I was sick."

  他满腔怒火,去见参谋总长陈诚将军,对在重庆看到的腐败和苛政提出抗议。他对陈诚气忿地说:“你们这里,三民主义只是写在墙上和在书店里卖,就是不在人民中间实行。你给我指出哪一个县实施了孙中山先生的三民主义?”

  陈诚面红耳赤,哑口无言。高树勋又去见蒋介石。“这一次更叫我头痛,”他一边说着,一边站起来,模仿着蒋介石那种上海滩流氓的架势,皮笑肉不笑地装模作样、连连点头说,“好!好!”然而,他也没有从委员长那里得到任何满意的回答。

  In anger, Kao went to see General Chen Cheng, chief of staff of the army. Protesting against the corruption and the despotism he had seen in Chungking, Kao angrily burst out: "You may find the Three People's Principles on a wall or in a bookstore, but not among the people. Just show me one county where Dr. Sun's principles have been put in practice."

  General Chen flushed, but said nothing. Kao went to see Chiang Kai-shek himself. "I got another headache," he said, and here he got up and gave an imitation of Chiang's "Shanghai-loafer walk," imperceptibly swaggering, nodding his head and saying: "Good! Good!" But Kao got no satisfaction from the generalissimo either.
  “在重庆看到的一切,都使我非常生气,”他说,“以致我觉得除了杀掉蒋介石,没有任何别的办法可以有效地抗日。“象他这样直言不讳的批评家,在重庆是不受欢迎的。军方认为最好的办法是赶快打发他回前线去。高一回到河南,正赶上洛阳战役,吃了大败仗。

  他目睹农民被税吏所激怒,举行暴动反抗中国军队,然后投向日本人。到这时,高树勋对蒋介石政权完全失去了希望。与此同时,共产党非常注意地观察着高的异常行为。毛泽东每发表一篇著作,就给高送去一份。高开始感到蒋介石确是无可救药了。日本投降的那一年,他派亲信分别送信给八路军副总司令彭德怀将军以及刘伯承将军,建议进一步保持联系。“我之所以敢于这样做,”他说,“是因为我读了许多共产党的书,还因为我请了一百多个共产党员来我的部队工作,我觉得他们很不坏呀!”

  "I was so angry at what I saw in Chungking," he said, "that I thought there was no way to fight Japan effectively but to kill Chiang Kai-shek." Such an outspoken critic was not wanted around Chungking and the army found it convenient to ship him back quickly to the front. He arrived just in time to be completely overrun in the battle of Loyang and to see Chinese farmers, angered at the tax collectors, rise in revolt against Chinese soldiers and join the Japanese.

  By now, he saw no hope in the Chiang Kai-shek government at all. Meanwhile, the Communists had been watching Kao's antics with much interest. Every time he published a book, Mao Tze-tung sent Kao a copy. Kao began to think nobody could be worse than Chiang and a year before the Japanese surrender he sent a letter by trusted messenger to General Peng Teh-huai, vice-commander of the 8th Route Army and also one to General Liu Po-cheng, suggesting that they arrange further communications. "I dared do this," said Kao, "because I had read a lot of Communist books and because I had over a hundred Communist party members in my army and found they weren't such bad people after all."
  高树勋倾向共产党一事,很快不仅对他本人的思想发生了影响,而且使整个内战的进程也发生了变化。一九四五年,日本投降后,蒋介石命令高树勋的部队和附近的其他两个军,开向平汉路,占领新乡,准备横扫华北平原,打开通往北平的铁路线。在新乡的时候,刘伯承的密使和共产党的两位代表访问了高。高告诉他们,自己正要率部北上,想知道在哪里可以遇到八路军以便投诚。对他说来,这是性命交关的重大决定。用他自己的话讲,“这不是偶然的,而是二十年的经验所导致的结果。”

  在北上途中,高又写信给独眼刘将军,要求不要袭击他。刘不予理会,而是让高的部队和其他两个军继续推进然后突然加以包围。高告诉我,“我不责怪刘伯承,他做得对。”

  Kao's gravitation toward the Communists was soon to have an effect, not only on his own character, but on the course of the civil war. In 1945, after the Japanese surrender, Chiang Kai-shek ordered Kao and two other armies in the vicinity to advance up the Peiping-Hankow Railway and take the town of Sinsiang, preparatory to making a quick dash across the North China Plain and opening up railway communications to Peiping. In Sinsiang, an emissary from General Liu Po-cheng and also two delegates of the Communist party came to see Kao. Kao informed these delegates that he was dispatching his army northward and wanted to know where he could meet the 8th Route Army and come over. This was a terrible decision for Kao. In his own words, though, "It was not an accident but the result of twenty years of experience."


  Moving north, Kao wrote One-Eyed Liu asking him not to attack. Liu paid no attention, but let Kao and the other two armies come on and then threw a circling arm about them. "I did not blame Liu," Kao told me. "He was correct."

  高把自己的打算告诉了其他两位军长,力劝他们也起义,但他们不干。高给自己的妻子、袍泽和友人写信解释自己的行动,向其他的将领凄然告别之后,率部向刘伯承将军投诚。

  共产党让高的部队保持原来的武装。于是他通电全国,解释自己的立场并呼吁一切爱国的中国人实行以下三条:“反对内战,争取和平与民主,联合一切党派组成民主联合政府。”

  高在蒋管区的子女立即被捕,但在其名朋友的帮助下,很快被营救出狱,夫人和一个儿子被偷偷地送到了解放区。高的倒戈对内战发生了重大的影响:它挫败了蒋介石向北平方向的攻势,从而为马歇尔的调停工作打下了基础。这次行动使高自己的生涯也发生了巨大的变化。

链接:关于高树勋

  Kao told the other two army commanders what he was going to do and pleaded with them to come over. They would not. Writing explanatory letters to his wife, his old commanders in the army and to his friends, Kao bid a painful good-by to his fellow-generals and then surrendered with his army to General Liu. Allowed to keep his arms, he sent out a telegram addressed to the whole nation, explaining his attitude and asking every patriotic Chinese to observe three points: "Oppose the civil war, fight for peace and democracy and co-operate with all parties to organize a democratic coalition government."

  His sons and daughters in Chiang Kai-shek's hands were immediately arrested, but Kao with the aid of friends rescued them from jail and smuggled one son and his wife across the lines.

  Kao's desertion had an important effect on the civil war: it broke the back of Chiang's offensive toward Peiping. This laid the foundation for the Marshall truce negotiations. The effect of his act on Kao's personal life was also somewhat cataclysmic.

  “这里的一切都大不一样,”他对我说,“在蒋管区,社会阶层等级分明。我很了解,因为我是自下而上层层都经历过。那里只看你有多少金钱,做多大的官,住什么样的公馆。而在这里,人们仅仅问,‘你工作干好了吗?’我在那边当军长时,人们总是奉承我,称我大人、老爷或先生。现在没有人这样称我。哪怕我是在纺线,人们一样尊敬我。过去,我抽的是“三炮台”牌香烟,现在抽的是旱烟。在天津,我那公馆里有暖气,我在这里只有一个炭盆。二十多年来,每天我都要喝一至三十杯白兰地,现在呢,只是偶尔喝一杯‘白干儿’(本地产的酒)。

  “然而这种生活对我是很合适的,因为我是在农村长大的,恢复这种简朴的生活,我觉得很不错。即使在天津时期,当我闲着无事时,也常骑马去农村帮助农民收割麦子。不过那时候我和妻子坐在小汽车里,社会离我们是多么遥远。现在,我们俩都感到很接近生活,我们很喜欢这样。”

  “好啦,就这么多,”高说,“大概这足以说明一个人是怎样变成‘匪’吧。”他哈哈大笑。“我不是共产党员,他们也不会让我把我的部队称为八路军。但是,我认为目前共产党的政策是适合当前形势的。现在还不是实行社会主义,而是新民主主义,是外御强敌,内除暴政。”当然,我不轻易相信高对共产党的称颂。他不这样说也不行嘛。再说,别看他强作欢颜,我看得出他内心的哀伤。我说不出一个究竟,我只见他和共军指挥员同桌吃饭时很不自然,有点紧张,说笑很勉强。也许共产党的严肃态度使他感到不对劲,也许没完没了的政治宣传使他厌烦。也可能这是我的错觉,不过我当时确有此种感觉。

  "Everything here is different," he told me. "In Chiang Kai-shek's areas, society is distinctly stratified. I know, for I passed up from the bottom through all grades to the top. In Chiang's areas, the important thing is how much money you make, what rank you have or what kind of a house you're living in. Here people ask only one thing: 'Is your work well done?" When I was an army commander on the other side, people used to flatter me, call me Reverend Sir or Elder Born. Nobody does that now, and if I spun thread, I would be just as respected. Before I used to smoke Three Castles, now I smoke grass cigarettes. I used to have central heating in my big house in Tientsin, but now all I have is a pan of charcoal. For twenty years I drank from one to thirty glasses of brandy a day, but now I only drink an occasional cup of Pai kar native wine].

  "Still this life is appropriate for me because I was born in the country and it seems good to get back to simple standards again. Even in Tientsin, when I had nothing to do, I used to ride out and help the people reap their wheat. But in Tientsin when I rode around in my car with my wife, I saw society from far away. Here, both my wife and I feel very close to life. We like it.

  "Well, that's about all," said Kao. "That perhaps explains something about how a man becomes a 'bandit.' He laughed. "I'm not a Communist, and they won't let me call my army the 8th Route Army. But I think Communist policies are at the moment apropos to the present situation. It's not socialism, but a new democracy, against oppression from outside powers and against despotism from inside."

  I certainly was not prepared to take Kao's statements about his feelings toward the Communists at face value. After all what else could he say? Moreover, despite all his protestations of happiness, Kao seemed to me a little sad. I don't know what it was, but as I saw him eating with Red commanders he just appeared out of place - somewhat strained and forcedly gay. Perhaps, the very serious attitude of the Communists depressed him, perhaps the ceaseless political talk bored him. Maybe my impressions were wrong, but that's how I felt.

  实际上,他内心如何想,对战争来说无关宏旨。重要的是他自觉地背叛了蒋介石。我向他告别时,他嘱咐我出去时设法找蒋介石军队中的一位高级将领,恕我在这里不说出此人的名字。高说:“请告诉他,希望他理解我之所以投到这一边来,并不是由于个人有什么恩怨。希望他理解我决心参加革命,但我对他情谊仍不变。希望他在华北的国军中带头干,我们期待着他。”

  后来,我照他的要求做了。我出席了一次酒会,到会的不仅有蒋介石的高级文武官员乡人,还有魏德迈将军,他负有特别使命来华了解美国如何才能更好地援助蒋介石。我告诉那位中国将领说我见到了高将军,他听了大吃一惊,在人前他抓住我的衣袖,把我拉到他身边,听我向他传达高送来的口信。然后,他有点隐晦,但异常激动地说;“就来了,就来了。”

  But actually, the subjective feelings of Kao were not so important as far as the war was concerned. What mattered was that he had deserted Chiang Kai-shek and of his own accord. Just before I said good-by to Kao, he asked me when I returned to the outside world to go and see a very high-ranking officer - whom I can't name here - in Chiang Kai-shek's army. "Give him this message," he said. "Please understand that I came over to this side not for any reasons of personal enmity. And please understand that I had to join the revolution, but still have good friendship with you. Take the lead of all the legitimate forces in North China and we will follow you."

  Later, I did as Kao requested. At a party where were present not only a number of high Chinese officials, both in Chiang's government and his army, but also General Wedemeyer, who was then in China on a special mission to see if there were not some way the United States could help Chiang Kai-shek, I told this general I had seen Kao. His reaction was amazing. Right in front of everyone he seized me by the sleeve, drew me close and listened to Kao's message which I delivered. "It's coming, it's coming," he said somewhat cryptically, but with great excitement.

  果然来了。在华北,不论是在战场上,还是在政府机关及后方的指挥部里一再发生类似高树勋的事件。不过,蒋介石的失败,并不仅是由于国民党将领的纷纷倒戈,还由于八路军的英勇善战。

  下面,让我们看看八路军是一支什么样的军队。

  And come it did. The tale of Kao Hsu-hsun was repeated over and over again, not only on the battlefield, but in government offices and rear-line headquarters all over North China.

  But it was not only deserting Kuomintang generals that led to the defeat of Chiang Kai-shek, but also a small matter of the 8th Route Army.

  Let's see what kind of an army this was.