第十一章 内战

CHAPTER XI

CIVIL WAR

第四十六节 八路军
46. The 8th Route Army

  八路军大概是世界上独一无二的一种军事组织。它不效忠于政府,却在一个中央军事指挥机构领导下作战;它的兵员是招募来的,却不领薪饷;它的军官纪律严明,却没有军衔。

  这支军队是如此不同凡响,它的声望也许超过中国四千年历史上任何一只战斗部队。就连它的前身中国红军,也没有象它那样突出地受到仇视或热爱,畏惧或钦佩,咒骂或赞扬。

  八路军的威名传四方,无论到中国的任何地方,共产党地区也好,国民党地区也好,只要你伸出拇指和食指,人家就会意你指的是八路军。八路军走到卿里,它的威名就扬到哪里。从中缅边界的丛林到满洲的雪原,从青藏高原到黄海之滨,八路军转战全国各地,先后同军阀、蒋介石以及日本的一百多个军较量。八路军的战士来自各个省份,在某种意义上来说是一支全国性军队,但是没有一个国家承认他们。一句话,他们是武装的造反者。

AMONG world military organizations, the 8th Route Army was probably unique. It owed allegiance to no government, yet fought under a central military command. Its soldiers were volunteers, yet received no salary. Its officers enforced strict discipline, yet had no rank.

  So extraordinary was this army that it was probably better known than any fighting force in four thousand years of Chinese history. Not even the Chinese Red Army, from which it sprang, was so loved and hated, so feared and admired, so reviled and praised. The fame of these soldiers had spread so far that you could go almost any place in China, either on the Communist side or the Kuomintang, and merely by holding up your thumb and first finger, (1) signify that you wished to speak about the 8th Route Army. Almost as far traveled as its fame were its soldiers. From the jungles of Burma to the snowy fields of Manchuria, from the mountains of Tibet to the plains by the Yellow Sea, these soldiers had marched back and forth across the continent, fighting over a hundred different armies of the warlords, of Chiang. Kai-shek, of the Japanese. They were from all provinces and were in a sense a national army, yet no nation recognized them. In short, they were armed rebels.
  也许,统计数字最能说明这些造反者的情况。内战开始时,八路军只有一百万人左右,到一九四八年底,发展到近三百万人,部分原因是增募了新兵,但主要是补充了倒戈的国民党士兵。这时,共产党把八路军改名为人民解放军,赋予国家军队的意义,听从以毛泽东为首的五人革命军事委员会的号令。

  人民解放军现在的规模和作战的范围,与当年的红军以至于抗日战争时期的八路军已不可同日而语。这在战术组织方面表现得很突出。过去,共军只能打游击战,作战单位通常不大于团一级,但是,当我在共产党地区时,他们正在从游击战发展到运动战和正规战,作战单位发展到师和军一级。

  Perhaps the best way to approach an understanding of these rebels is statistical. At the start of the civil war the 8th Route Army had about a million men. By the end of 1948, this army totaled nearly three million men, the increase being accounted for partly by recruiting, but mostly by desertions from the Kuomintang. By this time, the Communists had changed the designation of their forces to the People's Revolutionary Army in order to give it the character of a national army. The direction of this army was vested in the five-man Revolutionary Affairs Military Council of the Communist party, headed by Mao Tze-tung.

  The very size of this army and the extent of the area in which it operated made it much different from the old Red Army or even than the army which had fought the Japanese. This was particularly so in tactical organization. Previously, the Reds had fought nothing but a partisan warfare and operated in units generally no larger than a regiment. When I was in Communist territory, however, they were just in the process of changing from partisan to mobile and regular warfare and operated in divisions and corps.

原注一:同时伸出食指和拇指是中国人表示“八”的一种办法,就跟西方人用拇指和中指表示“胜利”一样普遍。不过,在中国敌我都用这种方法。 (1) A Chinese way of indicating the figure 8. The use of this sign became as prevalent in China as the V sign in Europe. It, however, was used by friend and foe alike.
  共产党从不把战争看成仅仅是军事问题。他们的一线团部里,常常配有大批非军事人员。每个团里不仅有指挥员和战斗员,而且还有教员、学员、男女演员、土改干部和农业专家。因此,一支八路军部队常常不只是一个作战组织,而同时还是一所学校、一个剧团、一个劳动合作社和一个政治俱乐部。

  八路军战士绝大多数是青年农民。他们的平均年龄比老红军时期要大得多,我估计与我们美军的年龄水平差不多。在我调查的一个团里,士兵的平均年龄是二十三岁,身高五英尺,体重一百三十六磅。这个团的战士几乎百分之百是华北农民。老红军时代剩下的南方战士早己成为军官了。军官当中百分之七十一出身于农民,百分之十一出身干工人,百分之十二出身于学生,只有百分之六(除学生以外)是小资产阶级出身—商人、知识分子和小地主等的子弟。

  解放军战士的文化水平比国民党士兵高得多,比华北农民也高得多,但是与西方的标准相比,仍然是很低的。这个团百分之七十三的战士在参军时还是文盲,但是现在其中百分之二十的人认了两百字,百分之三十三的人会读和写三百字,百分之三十的人能看报纸了。

  这个团百分之三十三的战士参军前上过小学,能读报纸和简单的书籍。各团的战士不打仗时都要学习文化,由政治指导员和文化程度较高的同志当教员,排长们也亲自教课。

  战士们和指挥员一样,没有固定的薪饷。不过公家除了管伙食和发制服以外,还发给每人一点粮食,大家通常是凑起来去换蔬菜。土地法大纲实施以后,每个战士和军官以及政府工作人员都可以和农民一样分到一份土地。他们在外期间,土地由家里人或当地农民协会代耕。

  War to the Communists not being primarily a military affair, their frontline regiments were often leavened with a large smattering of nonmilitary personnel. In each regiment, there were not only officers and soldiers, but teachers and students, actors and actresses, land reform cadres and farm experts. Thus an 8th Route Army unit was often not only a fighting organization but at the same time a school, theater, labor co-operative and political club.

  As for the men themselves, the great majority of them were young peasants. Their average age was much higher than that of the old Red Army and I suppose corresponded somewhat to the age level in our own army. In one regiment that I investigated, the average soldier was twenty-three years old, five feet high and weighed 136 pounds.

  In this same regiment, nearly 100 per cent of the soldiers were North China farmers. What southern soldiers remained from the old Red Army days had long since become officers. Of the officers, 71 percent came from the peasantry, 11 percent were workers and 12 percent were students. Only 6 percent (outside the students) were from the petty bourgeoisie - sons of merchants, intellectuals, small landlords and so on.

  The literacy of the soldiers was very much higher than in Chiang's armies and very much highei than the North China peasantry, but compared to Western standards it was still very low. Seventy-three percent of the soldiers had been illiterate when entering the army, but of these 20 percent could now read two hundred characters, 23 percent could read and write three hundred characters, and 30 percent could read a newspaper. Twenty-three per cent of the soldiers had a primary school education before joining this regiment and of these all could read newspapers and simple books. Soldiers of all regiments were required to study characters when not fighting. Some of these were taught by political directors, some by more educated comrades and some by the platoon commanders themselves.

  Soldiers, like their commanders, received no fixed salaries. However, in addition to their food and uniforms, they received a small grain allotment which they generally pooled and traded in for vegetables. After the adoption of the land reform program, every soldier and officer, as well as government member, was entitled to a portion of land equivalent to that given the peasants. This was farmed in his absence by his family or the local Farmers Association.

  除了职务较高的老共产党员外,大多数军官都是本地人,少数是老红军,还有些是抗日战争时期从外面来的知识分子。军官的平均年龄是:团一级三十岁,旅三十五岁,师是四十岁以上。全军年纪最大的指挥官是朱德,其次是五十五岁的刘伯承将军。最年轻的师长是三十七岁。

  大多数军官是抗日战争期间行伍出身的。这不但排除了形成一个军官团的制度,而且意味着,这样的军官对于军事和每个士兵的个人问题的了解,要比军事专科学校出身的军官强得多。一般来说,军官由各个部队自己培养,而不由一个中央部门配备。由于交通不便,几乎没有什么后方专门学校,大多数候补军官由纵队和旅在战地办的学校训练。这种办法不但方便,而且免除了在战争时期使年轻的美国军官十分不满意的那种军官补充站之类机构。

  八路军没有军衔,却从未因此而在战场上发生混乱。军中习惯于互相敬礼,但在司令部里和后方则不需要。八路军没有诸如“皮靴必须擦得锃亮”一类的烦琐纪律,而正是这种纪律曾使战时在巴黎的美国士兵非常恼火。八路军里也没有飞扬跋扈的人物,如果出现这种人,士兵们很快就会把他整治好的。

The officers, (2) except for the top-ranking old-line Communists, were mostly from local areas. A few were from the old Red Army and some were intellectuals who came in from outside during the war against Japan. The average age of these officers was thirty in the regiment, thirty-five in a brigade, forty or over in a division. The oldest commander in the whole army was Chu Teh, next was General Liu Po-cheng, who was fifty-five. The youngest division commander was thirty-seven.

  Most of the officers had come from the ranks during the Japanese war. Not only did this preclude an officer caste system, but meant that the officer understood. both the military and personal problems of the individual soldier far better than if he had been trained in some special academy. As a general rule, each outfit produced its own officers instead of getting them from a central pool. There were few rear line schools - due to the difficulties of communication - and most officer candidates went to schools maintained by columns and brigades in the field. This was not only convenient, but also did away with the kind of replacement depots which so demoralized our young officers during the war.

  There was no rank and no confusion on the battlefield because of the lack of it. Saluting was customary among troops, but not around headquarters or in the rear lines.

  There was none of that boot-and-polish and asinine discipline that so angered American soldiers in Paris during the war. There were no Courthouse Lees and if one developed, he would soon have been put in his place by the soldiers.

原注二:“官”在这里是指基层部队指挥员,如连长、营长(应为当时共军没有军衔)。共军中用“官”、“兵”来区别指挥员和战斗员。 (2) Officer is used here in the sense of a commander of a unit, such as a company or a battalion. Officers and soldiers were usually distinguished by the terms "leaders" and "fighters."

  士兵们犯了过失,通常由军官或班长找他们谈话。如果继续犯错误,就在所在的排、连或营的军人大会上进行批评,责令他们“改造思想”。这种思想上和社会上的压力是极难抵挡的。犯更严重错误者要关禁闭。公然反党的人提交群众大会讨论。如果群众大会作出决定,就可以把犯人枪决。这种办法也适用于军官以及高级指挥官。

  士兵有权要求召开会议,批评军官和向上级领导告状,如果判明哪个军官有错误,他通常要在群众大会上道歉或作检讨。如果他对某项控告不服,可以向上级申诉,但是无权压制控告或实行打击报复。

  军官或士兵没有分开的俱乐部,只有共同的军人娱乐部。美国土兵可能会觉得这样的俱乐部枯燥无味。每个连、营、旅、师甚至高级司令都都有军人俱乐部。俱乐部下面分设:伙食、管理、墙报、戏剧和歌咏以及活动检查委员会。墙报委员会又分时事、问答、木刻、漫画、布告、个人计划等小组,主要由士兵们自己投稿,这与美国陆军办的《星条旗报》一类的刊物迥然不同。

  军官是按照所任职务称呼的,如张班长或王连长。刘伯承虽然是司令员,仍通常被称为刘师长。由于军队的规模不断扩大,曾经议论过是否制定军衔和使用符号,以便把军官们区别开来。但是由于官兵的关系如此密切,所以还没有这样做的任何必要。从外面调来一个新的军官时,他带着介绍信,虽然没有佩带军衔符号,也很快就会按制度安排妥当。最后一点,八路军里没有单为军官而设的俱乐部,医院里没有军官专用病房,也没有军官专用的食堂。这一切听起来虽然颇有点诗意,但我想恐怕不会持续长久。我所遇到的大多数军官都说,他们当然不愿象俄国人那样取消这种制度。但也有几位高级军官私下告诉我,这是革命时期的措施,和平时期或许会改变的。

 oldiers committing small offenses were usually talked to by officers or sergeants. Those who continually committed such offenses were criticized at mass meetings of their platoon, company or battalion. Such culprits were told they must "Turn over their thoughts." This ideological and social pressure was extremely hard to withstand. More serious offenses were punished by jail. Obvious antiparty activities were presented to mass meetings. Culprits could be shot if the mass meeting so decided. This applied to officers as well as top-ranking commanders.

  Soldiers had the right to call meetings to criticize officers and to complain to superior authorities. If judged guilty, the officer generally apologized or repented at a mass meeting. If he disagreed with a complaint, he passed it on to a superior. But he had no right to complaint or penalize the individual who made it.

  There were no clubs for officers or enlisted men, but only army clubs for both together. Possibly, they would have proved dull to American soldiers. Every company, battalion, brigade, division and even headquarters of the high command had army clubs. Each club had the following committees: food, management, wall newspaper, dramatics and singing and the committee for the survey of activities. The Wall Newspaper Committee had the following sections: current events, questions and answers, woodcuts, cartoons, notices, personal plans. The main emphasis was on the writings of the soldiers themselves, and bore little resemblance to an American Army-managed newspaper such as the Stars and Stripes.

  Officers were called by their titles, such as Squad Commander Chang or Company Commander Wang. Liu Po-cheng, though a commander in chief, was generally referred to as Division Commander Liu. Because of the growing size of the army, there was some discussion about instituting rank and using insignia so that officers would be recognized, but soldiers and officers were so close that there had not yet been any need for this. If a new officer came from outside, he brought identification papers with him, and soon fitted into the old scheme, despite his lack of bars or eagles or stars. Finally, there were no officer's clubs, no officer wards in hospitals and no officer messes. Idyllic as it may sound, I am afraid it may not last. Most of the officers I met said they certainly did not want to do away with the system as the Russians did, but a few higher-ranking officers confided to me that it was a revolutionary measure and would probably be done away with in peacetime.

  八路军里大多数官兵都未婚。已婚的一般都是在参军前结的婚。家在当地的士兵有时在新年节假期间获准回家结婚。一旦他有了妻子,就可以得到照顾,发给津贴费。法律保护一个战士在前线时,他的妻子不能和他离婚。但是妻子如果三年听不到她丈夫的音信,便有权再结婚。这种法律,恐怕有时保护士兵多于保护妻子。我遇到过一个女青年,她丈夫是一个旅的参谋长。她有四年没有见到她的丈夫,而男的已找到了另一个女人。她想与他离婚,但又不知道对她的孩子该怎么办。

  许多官兵变相地离了婚——就是说,他们抛弃了他们的妻子和家庭。事实上,我发现不幸的婚姻是使许多男人和妇女不仅参加八路军,而且投身整个革命的重要原因之一。当然,这也是对迫使男女青年违背自己意愿去结合的封建主义进行反抗的一种方式。有时,士兵请假回家去看家里为他选好的对象,由于士兵在部队受到相当开明的教育,还因出了家门而开阔了眼界,所以往往拒绝娶父母所选择的对象。

  就我之所见所闻,八路军战士很尊重农民妇女,农民对八路军道德纪律的好评,也远胜于蒋军。八路军士兵对待妇女这样好的原因之一,就是他们往往是在自己的家乡一带打仗。国民党军队则是外来的,他们常常不同情当地群众。我甚至发现,由于国民党军官和八路军军官的不同,使地主也倾向共产党的事业。在某个村子里,我遇到一个地主,他的土地被分掉并因此而恨八路军。但是当国民党暂时占领那个地区时,他的女儿就象通常的地主女儿一样,是村里最漂亮的姑娘,却被迫和驻在当地的国民党指挥官睡觉。结果,尽管这个地主失去了财产,还是宁愿要八路军。

  八路军从最高级的指挥员到最普通的士兵,穿着都一样。不过,职务越高的人,特权也越多。营以上的指挥员发给一匹马或一头骡子。军长则可能有一辆缴获的吉普车。团长有小鬼(从家里跑出来参军的男孩)作为通讯员。官兵都不佩戴任何表明军阶或所属单位的符号。指挥员可以从他们身穿比较干净的衣服以及有时佩戴比较讲究的手枪、皮带辨别出来。从来没有军官佩挂一排奖章炫耀自己。事实上,只有工人和士兵奖章。

  对作战勇敢的士兵的奖赏是获得战斗英雄的称号,他们的名字刊登在报纸(通常每个部队都办一份报)上或者杂志上。凡有一般的战功的战士,其奖赏是把他们列入本部队的光荣榜上。士兵们通常一年发一套冬装和两套夏装。八路军军官没有像国民党军官那样好的西式大衣,但是八路军战士的衣服比国民党士兵要好得多,总是有冬装而且从不缺鞋穿。

  The majority of the officers, as well as the soldiers, in the 8th Route Army were unmarried. Those who were married were generally in that state before they entered the army. Local regulars sometimes obtained leave over the New Year holidays to get married. Once he had taken a wife, the soldier got preferential treatment in the way of subsidies. By law, a soldier was guaranteed that his wife could not divorce him while he was on the front. But if the wife did not hear from her husband for three years, she had the right to marry again. This law, I am afraid, sometimes protected the soldier better than it did the wife. I met a girl who was the wife of a brigade chief of staff. She had not seen him for four years and he had taken up with another woman. She wanted a divorce, but did not know what to do about her child.

  Many of the officers and soldiers were divorced - that is, they had left their wives and families behind. As a matter of fact, unhappy marriages, I found, were one of the big reasons why both men and women joined not only the army, but the whole revolution. This, of course, was but another way of revolting against feudalism, which forced boys and girls to marry against their wills. Sometimes a soldier would go home on leave to see the girl his family had picked out for him. Having received quite a liberal education in the army and his horizon having been broadened by travel, the soldier would often refuse to marry the girl of his parents' choice.

  As far as I could see and learn, the soldiers of the 8th Route Army treated the peasant girls with respect, and the farmers had a far higher opinion of army morality than they did of Chiang's soldiers. One of the reasons 8th Route Army soldiers treated the women so well was that they often fought in their own locality. Kuomintang soldiers were imported from outside and often had no sympathy for the local populace. I even found landlords who had been won to the Communist cause because of the difference between Kuomintang and 8th Route Army officers. In one village, I came across a landlord whose land had been divided and who hated the 8th Route Army because of this. But when the Kuomintang temporarily took over the area, his daughter, being the best-looking girl in the village, as landlords' daughters generally are, was forced to sleep with the local Kuomintang commander. As a result, despite the loss of his property, the landlord much preferred the 8th Route Army.

  From the highest commander down to the lowliest soldier, all men of the 8th Route Army dressed alike. The higher the person's job, however, the more privileges. Battalion commanders and up were entitled to a horse or a mule. Army commanders might have a captured jeep. Regiment commanders might have Little Devils (boys who run away from home to join the army) as orderlies. Neither officer nor soldier wore any insignia showing either rank or unit. Commanders were distinguished by their cleaner clothes and sometimes fancy pistol belts. No officer ever went around sporting a row of medals. As a matter of fact, the only medals were worker and soldier medals.

  Brave soldiers were rewarded by becoming members of the All Heroes Organization. Their names were published in the newspapers, of which every unit generally had one, or in magazines. For minor deeds of heroism, the soldier was rewarded by having his name placed in his unit's book.

  The soldier usually received one winter and two summer uniforms a year. The officers had no fine foreign-style overcoats like Chiang's officers, but the soldiers were far better clad than Chiang's, always having winter uniforms and never being without shoes.

  共产党是如何能够使他们的军队有吃、有穿并且怎样为其军队提供装备呢?共产党鼓励生产和恢复手工业的政策发生了作用,证明这样做既有利于军队也有利于农民经济的发展。至于八路军的武器装备,美国和蒋介石军队实际上是他们的主要供应者。八路军的百分之九十的大炮、机关枪和步枪都是从国民党军队手中缴获来的。边区能够生产八路军使用的百分之八十的手榴弹和百分之七十的炮弹。

  生产炮弹是个难题。所生产的炮弹适用于缴获的中国和日本大炮,却不适用于八路军从蒋军缴获来的美国大炮。我看到八路军部队配有美制105毫米榴弹炮和火箭筒,以及一些弹药。当我在那里时,边区领导人正在争论,是改变他们大炮炮筒的口径去适应炮弹呢,还是改变炮弹以适应大炮。这是个难办的问题,因为他们无法知道他们所缴获什么口径的大炮,也不知道将缴获的大炮是中国造的、日本造的还是美国造的。

  八路军战士的个人装备,通常是一支步枪,两颗手榴弹,五至十发子弹,一条毯子,一套换洗的衬衣裤,一块肥皂,一个饭碗,一双筷子,一个针线包,两双鞋和一个笔记本。老战士往往有自来水笔,那是在大生产运动中获得的奖品。士兵很少有牙刷,几乎从来没有牙膏。他们不戴护身符,没有圣经,不向任何牧师忏悔,他们没有什么迷信。

  我所作的统计就是这些。但是要真正了解八路军,还必需了解蒋介石军队,以及这两支军队同中国革命的关系。

  How did the Communists manage to feed, clothe and equip their armies? Here is where the Communist encouragement of production and the revival of handicrafts proved their worth to the army as well as to the economy of the peasant. As far as armaments went, the United States and Chiang's armies were really their main source of supply. Ninety percent of all its artillery, machine guns and rifles were from Kuomintang troops. Border Region could make 80 percent of the hand grenades and 70 percent of the shells the army used.

  The manufacture of shells was a difficult problem. Shells made to fit Chinese- and Japanese-captured guns would not fit the American guns the 8th Route captured from Chiang's troops. Soldiers I saw had mobile American 105s and bazookas with some ammunition. Border Region leaders, when I was there, were debating whether to change the size of their gun barrel to meet their shells or to change the shells to fit the guns. It was a tough problem because they never knew what size guns they were going to capture or whether they would be Chinese, Japanese or American.

  As for the individual soldier, he generally had a rifle, two hand grenades, five to ten clips of ammunition, one blanket, an extra suit of underwear, a cake of soap, a rice bowl, a pair of chopsticks, a sewing kit, two pairs of shoes and a notebook. Old soldiers often had fountain pens won as prizes in production campaigns. Seldom did the soldier have a toothbrush and almost never any tooth paste. He wore no charms, carried no Bible, confessed to no chaplain and had few superstitions.

  So much for statistics. But really to understand the 8th Route Army it is necessary to understand Chiang Kai-shek's army and the relation of both armies to the Chinese Revolution.