第十一章 内战

CHAPTER XI

CIVIL WAR

第四十九节 蒋介石发动进攻
49. Chiang Attacks
  战争仅仅是政策的工具,但是蒋介石好象从来没有一个全盘战争计划。战役计划是有的;全盘的战争计划则无。而在同共产党发生冲突的整个过程中,我们感到他忽视了共产党的军队,而把自己获胜的希望完全寄托在夺取铁路线、城市和重要据点上。  

  让我们再用一点时间回顾一下一九四五年,当时蒋介右避居在山城重庆。日本投降时,蒋介右所在地离沿海一千五百英里之遥,而他的宿敌共产党人却靠近华北的大城市,并要求进驻这些城市。蒋介石用两种手法来解决这个难题:他借用美国的空军和海军把自己的军队运到日本人占据的南京、上海、天津、北平和满洲,同时说服美国政府命令战败的日军不得向在他们跟前的共产党游击队投降。

WAR is only an instrument of policy, but Chiang Kai-shek seems never to have had a war plan. Plans for campaigns- yes; plan for war - no. And throughout the whole conflict with the Communists, we find him ignoring their army and basing his whole hopes for victory on the capture of rail lines, walled cities and strong points.  

  Let us go back again for a moment to the year 1945 and rejoin Chiang Kai-shek in his rock-ribbed refuge at Chungking. (l) The Japanese have surrendered, but Chiang is fifteen hundred miles away from the seacoast, while his ancient enemies, the Communists, are close by the big cities of North China, demanding entry within their walls. Chiang solves this dilemma by twin strokes: he borrows the American Air Force and Navy to transport his troops to Japanese-held Nanking, Tientsin, Peiping, and Manchuria and he persuades the American government to issue orders to the beaten Japanese not to surrender to the Communist guerrillas at their gates.

  这一手实在高明,很多人都佩服——但事后证明这正是中国独裁者失策之处。因为他把一师师的军队空运和海运到北平、天津和满洲的孤立据点以后,无情的逻辑迫使他必须设法使这些军队同他的首都南京以及他的实力地盘长江流域联系起来。要做到这一点,蒋介石就不得不在中国大陆上最有战略意义的华北大平原的地面上作战以打开通道。他的兵力经不起这样作战的消耗。


  This was a clever stratagem, acknowledged by all as a masterpiece - but it was to prove the undoing of China's dictator. For, having isolated these air- and sea-borne divisions in Peiping, Tientsin and Manchuria, he was led on by an inexorable logic to try and link them with his capital at Nanking and his main source of strength, the Yangtze Valley. To do so Chiang had to fight his way, on the ground over the North China Plain, the most strategic area on the continent. In this attempt he was to strain his forces beyond their capacities.

原注一:抗战时蒋介石的陪都设在重庆。日本投降后他还都南京。 (1) Chiang established a temporary capital in Chungking during the Japanese war. He returned to the national capital at Nanking after V-J Day.
  要想对华北平原的地形有一个清楚的概念,只需在地上放一个大写的A宇,A字的左腿代表平汉铁路,右腿代表津浦铁路,中间一横代表陇海铁路。A字的顶点是蒋介石的华北集团军的司令部所在地北平;左边底端是他在华中的供应基地汉口;右边底端是蒋介石和国民党政府的所在地南京。A字上端的三角形可以代表华北平原的中心地带,自从一九三八年以来,共产党就在这个地区同日本人作战。这个三角形的右边中段有一处佛教圣地,名叫泰山。远古时代现在的山东省原是一片海洋,而泰山曾是海洋里的一座岛屿。A字的左下半段是一系列的山脉这些山脉俯瞰着中原,并延绵二千英里直到世界屋脊西藏。四千年来,当地的军阀们和入侵的蛮族都曾为争夺这一带地方而争斗不休。

  黄河象一条泥蛇,从群山西面游出来,沿着A字中间的横杠,忽上忽下,蜿蜒穿越过中原,滋养着中华半壁江山。

  至于中原本身,可以想象出它在古代原是汪洋一片。黄河携带着厚厚的蒙古高原上的黄土,直泄在这里,造成了黄褐色的广阔陆地,就象铺筑的地面一样平坦,上面村庄星罗棋布,居住着九千万人口。

  正是这些人民、铁路、河流、山脉和平原的结合体,使这个地区成为世界上最值得注意的、最重要的决战战场之一。华北平原亦称黄河平原,是全国的钥匙,谁控制了它,谁就能打开通向胜利的大门。蒋介石认识到了这一点,所以他在一九四五年十月贸然采取了一系列的紧急进军行动,企图抢占这个地区,并希望确保长江与华北之间的陆上交通线。他调动了他在当地所有的军队,连同军阀阎锡山所部共五万人,一头扎进山西的山区里,同时,以三个军的兵力进犯东边的冀中平原。他这个行动带有铤而走险的味道,其后果是悲惨的。

  Those who wish to gain a clear idea of the North China Plain have only to place, mentally, on the ground, a capital A. The left leg of the A is the Peiping-Hankow Railway, the right one is the Tientsin-Pukow Railway, the tie of the A is the Lunghai Railway. The top of the A is Peiping where the headquarters of Chiang's northern army is; the lower left tip is Hankow, where his Central China supply base is; the lower right tip is Nanking, where Chiang Kai-shek and the seat of the Kuomintang government are. (2)

  The triangle comprised in the top of the A, between the two legs and the crossbar, is the heart of the plain, where, since 1938, Communists had fought the Japanese. Midway, up the right side of this triangle lies a sacred Buddhist mountain, called Mount Tai, which was once an island in the sea that is now Shantung Province. Down the whole length of the left limb of our A runs a series of mountains which native militarists and invading barbarians have struggled to control for four thousand years and which stretch away for two thousand miles to the roof of the world in Tibet. These mountains dominate the plain.

  Emerging west of the mountains and cutting directly across the plain, sometimes north, sometimes south of the crossbar of the A, runs the Yellow River, that great muddy snake that drains half the continent of China.

  As for the plain itself, imagine an ancient sea that the Yellow River pumped full of Mongolian bess and made into a vast ocher-colored expanse of ground, flat as a pavement and thickly sown with the villages of ninety million people.

  It is the combination of these people, the railways, the river, the mountains and the plain that makes this one of the most interesting and important maneuver grounds for decisive battle in the world. The North China Plain, sometimes known as the Yellow River Plain, is the key to the whole country and he who holds it can open the door to victory. Recognizing this, Chiang Kai-shek, in October 1945, rashly tried to take the area by a series of quick marches, hoping to make secure the overland route between the Yangtze and the north. Using what troops he had in the vicinity and allying himself with the troops of Warlord Yen Hsi-shan, he dashed into the mountains of Shansi Province with fifty thousand men and at the same time ran three corps into the plains of Hopei Province on the east. His move was characteristically opportunistic and had fatal consequences.
原注二:严格的说汉口和南京正在大平原的南方。 (2) Strictly speaking Hankow and Nanking lie just south of the Great Plain.

  据守平原西部太行山区的共产党,注视着蒋介石的军事行动并看出了它的弱点。刘伯承将军率领所部五万人由山区出击,沿途又征集了五万民兵,在一个星期内就消灭了山西境内的蒋军三万人,生俘一名军长和十二名师长。然后刘伯承回师穿过山区东进,在一个星期内把冀中平原上三个军的敌人诱入包围圈,没放一枪就说动高树勋将军率他那个军起义,刘伯承曾同他有一年时间的书信往来;在漳河两岸消灭了敌人一个军,剩下的敌人一个军向南逃窜。

  刘伯承这次神速的胜利本身并不是很大的战役,观察家们也没有给予足够重视。但它却使蒋介石受到震动而警觉起来:原来这些共产党已不复是十二年前他从长江流域赶走的那些半饥半饿的游击队,而已成为心腹之患了。正是由于这次战败,才产生了一九四六年马歇尔主持签订的那个短命的停战协定。蒋介石在停战期间经过一番考虑和研究,决定发动全面内战。一九四六年七月,他把手中二百五十个旅中的二百个旅投入前线,向华北平原大举进攻,仗着优势的装备,一心要与他在华北的孤军会师,并在三至六个月内结束战争。

  For the Communists in the Taihang Mountains, west of the plain, watched his move and recognized its vulnerability. General Liu Po-cheng, debouched from the mountains with fifty thousand troops of his own, picked up fifty thousand more civilians on the way, and within a week wiped out thirty thousand of Chiang's troops in Shansi and captured one army and twelve division commanders. Turning back through the mountains and marching east, Liu, within another week, lured the three corps on the plain into a trap, persuaded General Kao Hsu-hsun, with whom he had been in written communication for a year, to surrender without a fight, wiped out a second corps on the banks of the Chang River, and drove the third back south.

  Liu's quick victory was no major action in itself and observers paid it but scant attention; but it brought Chiang to cold-eyed alertness with a shock of recognition: these Communists were no longer the half-starved guerrillas he had driven from the Yangtze Valley twelve years before, but a serious menace. It was this defeat that underlay the shortlived Marshall truce of 1946. The truce was, for Chiang Kai-shek, a period of reflection and consideration. His decision was all-out war. In July 1946, Chiang assembled 200 of his 250 brigades for front line duty and set out on the great drive against the North China Plain with the avowed attention of reaching his isolated troops in the north and ending the war by weight of materiel within three to six months.

  为什么蒋介石要发动全面内战呢?答案很明显:他认为自己能够获胜。数字似乎能证明这一点。敌对双方的力量对比如下:
  Why did Chiang begin an all-out war? The answer is obvious: he thought he could win. The figures seemed to prove it. The opposing sides lined up something like this:
  蒋介石方面(Chiang) 共产党方面(Communists)
人口(Population) 340,000,000 110,000,000
军队(Army) 4,000,000 1,200,000
非正规军(Irregulars) 1,000,000 I,500,000

  尽管八路军在士气和机动性方面占有某些优势,但在蒋军进攻面前不得不放弃一些地盘。蒋介石起初获得了迅速的、似乎是决定性的胜利。他迅速地肃清了首都南京和主要都市上海周围地区,把共产党将军陈毅部沿着海岸赶到山东,使陈毅将军退居泰山胜地。接着,蒋介石又迅速出击,轻而易举地夺得了共产党在华北占据的唯一大城市张家口。

  胜利来得如此容易,以致国民党军官们说:“共产党对战术一窍不通,打仗象儿戏。”蒋军参谋总长陈诚声言战争不久即可结束。蒋军捷报频传,但几乎没有抓到共军俘虏。几个月以后,蒋军的进展缓慢下来了。

  蒋军占领了城市,但共军留在农村,掐住蒋军的交通线。到了一九四六年底,落介石开始发现,暂时占领供应线沿线的城镇是必要的,但这样做所需的兵力他是提供不起的。

  由于不能迅速结束战争,蒋介石被迫把在华北四条战线上同时进行的攻势收缩一下,集中兵力于一条主要战线上。到了一九四七年,他拟定了征服华北的新计划。他在重要的铁路交通枢纽徐州周围集结了五十万兵力,向通往北平和满洲的必经之路山东省展开强大的攻势。这条战线的激战远远超过了被大肆渲染的满洲战线,并很快成为举足轻重的战场。

  Despite its several advantages in morale and mobility, the 8th Route Army had to give ground before Chiang's attacks which at first brought rapid and seemingly conclusive successes. Quickly Chiang cleared the area around the nation's capital at Nanking and her chief city at Shanghai and drove Communist General Chen Yi up the seacoast and into Shantung where he took refuge in sacred Mount Tai. With another swift blow, and almost ridiculous ease, he captured Kalgan, the only large North China city in Communist hands.

  Success was so easy that Kuomintang officers said: "The Communists know nothing about tactics. They fight like babies." Chen Cheng, army chief of staff, declared the war would soon be over. Everywhere, Chiang had nothing but victories. But he captured few enemy troops. In a few months his progress slowed down.

  Chiang captured cities, but the Communists remained in the countryside, sitting athwart his communications. In late 1946, Chiang began to find that the temporary, but necessary, occupation of towns along his supply routes required more forces than he could afford.

  Unable to finish off the war quickly, Chiang, who had been waging offensives on four northern fronts at once, was forced to reduce his commitments and concentrate on one main front. By 1947, he drew up a new plan to conquer North China. Around the important railway junction of Hsuchow he massed half a million men and began a drive through Shantung Province, the road to Peiping and Manchuria. This front far outstripped the more publicized Manchurian front and soon became of nationwide importance.

  其时我正在共产党地区内,我看到共产党的战略家们作出了对战争的进程具有深远影响的决定。他们决定停止退却,回过头来迎击敌人。

  “我已经注意到,”刘伯承将军告诉我,“虽然蒋介石仍能在局部地区占上风,但由于后备力量不足,已不能把攻势继续下去了。我们认为他的兵力越打越少,不能再打大仗了。

  “我们已经消灭了敌人五十个旅,当我们再消灭他五十个旅时,我想我们就可以转入反攻了。“根据这种理论,共产党制定了自己的作战计划。陈毅将军以泰山为基地,独眼将军刘伯承在蒋军的东侧迂回,决定在山东站定脚跟打一次硬仗,与蒋军决一雌雄。

链接:刘伯承《关于自卫战争十个月来形势的报告》

  At this time, I was in Communist territory and I saw Red strategists make a decision which was to have profound effects on the course of the war. They decided to halt their retreats and stand up and fight.

  "I have noted," General Liu Po-cheng told me, "that while Chiang can still gain local victories, he can no longer keep his offensives rolling because of lack of reserves. We think his manpower is running low and he can't fight big battles any more.

  "We have destroyed fifty brigades and when we destroy another fifty we think we can go on the offensive." In the light of this theory, the Communists laid their plans. General Chen Yi, basing himself on Mount Tai, and one-eyed General Liu, operating against Chiang's flanks on the east, decided to stand up in Shantung, slug it out and see what happened.

  起初,共军不得不放弃一些地盘,但是换来的是,他们很快开始抓获大批俘虏。一九四七年一月,全副美式装备的蒋军第二十六师全军覆灭。被俘的师长极不服气地对俘获他的共产党人说,他的失败不是由于共军的战术高明,而是由于蒋介石愚蠢,硬逼着他违背自己的意志冒进所造成的。可是,令人惊讶的是蒋军士兵们根本不顾本方的事业,以至在投降时丝毫没想到要毁坏手中的装备。这些武器现在被八路军全部接收过去,用来打国民党了。

  蒋介石不管三七二十一,还是一味推进。他又通过青岛的美国海军基地调进一个兵团南下,试图用钳形攻势包抄共军,陈毅将军不等敌人的钳子夹住自己,突然甩掉南面之敌,集中全部兵力从泰山高处居高临下,猛击从北向南进犯的敌兵团,大获全胜,几天之内俘虏了三万敌军,完全打垮了蒋介石的攻势。

  At first, they had to give ground, but in exchange, they soon began to get large bags of prisoners. In January 1947, the whole American-equipped 26th Division surrendered with its commander who savagely told his Communist captors that his debacle was due not to clever tactics on their part but to the stupidity of the generalissimo who stubbornly pushed him forward against his will. It was curious, however, that the troops had thought so little of their cause that they had not bothered to destroy one bit of their equipment, which was now taken over by the 8th Route Army and turned around on the Kuomintang.

  Chiang did not heed this sign, but pushed on. Bringing another army group over from the American naval base at Tsingtao and sending them south, he tried to catch the Communist forces in Shantung in a pincer. General Chen Yi, instead of waiting for the jaws of this trap to dose on him, suddenly retreated from the southern force and from the eminence of Mount Tai threw down all his strength at the group army coming at him from the north. The results were electric. Within a few days, thirty thousand prisoners were taken and Chiang's offensive was completely dislocated.

  蒋介石被打得狼狈不堪,频频撤换司令官,先是用广东将领薛岳代替北方将领刘峙,又换成蒋的同乡汤恩伯,最后是起用江苏将领顾祝同,可是结果总是一样,损失惨重。

  国民党军官的士气开始急剧下降。每支部队里,都部分成了主战和停战两派。年纪较大的将领不再忠于他们的“领袖”,而是公开批评蒋介石了。三十五岁上下的军官们,原先一心想同共军决战,现在感到打下去是死路一条了。只有一部分骄横不可一世的少壮军官想要继续打下去,但是就连这些人也不免气馁了。

  受到非人待遇并经常受长官毒打的士兵们,由于伤亡惨重而士气丧尽。如果长官们不能身先士卒,士兵们是不愿进攻的。需要迅速向前推进的攻势,由于土兵不愿中共军的埋伏而被破坏了。尽管士兵们被告知他们是在剿匪,但他们都知道对手是传奇式的八路军。他们听说八路军官兵平等,军官没有特权,他们也开始知道共产党把土地分给农民。因此,他们开始问自己为什么要打下去,许多人开了小差。这些事件在蒋介石集团内部自然引起了巨大的震惊和恐慌。但这时他们还得应付另一种性质的灾难。在远离战场的台湾岛上,台湾人民无法忍受蒋介石派去的官吏的横征暴敛,恼怒地举行暴动反抗政府的统治。蒋介石从大陆上派了一师军队去镇压暴动。中国的指挥官不是自己主动就是按上级的指示,纵容士兵残酷对待平民百姓,仅在几周之内,就屠杀了五千名手无寸铁的男人、妇女和儿童,其中许多人是在西方商人、传教士和领事官员目睹之下被杀害的。同时,满洲人民也被蒋军的滥施抢劫、虐待和屠杀的暴行逼到了绝境,开始投到八路军这方面来。更严重的是,在山西、河南的山区,在山东、河北和江苏的平原地带,以及在蒋介石的控制被认为是比较安全无虑的地区,也爆发了民变和农民起义。

  In desperation, Chiang switched commanders, changing in rapid succession from Liu Chih, the northern general, to Hsueh Yueh, the Cantonese commander, to Tang En-po, his fellow-provincial, and then to Ku Chih-tung, the Kiangsu commander. The results were always the same: terrific losses.

  Morale among Kuomintang officers began to drop sharply. Those who wanted to continue and those who wanted to halt the war formed cliques in every unit. The older generals, no longer loyal to "the leader," openly criticized the generalissimo. Officers in their middle thirties, who had previously wanted nothing better than to fight the Communists, now thought the war suicidal. Only the heel-clicking and rabid younger officers wanted to continue, and even they were heartsick.

  The soldiers, subjected to inhuman treatment and frequent beatings by their officers, were demoralized by the casualties and often would not attack unless their officers got in front and led them. Offensives that were meant to roll quickly were sabotaged by soldiers who had no desire to fall into a Communist ambush. Though they were told they were fighting bandits the soldiers knew they were fighting the legendary 8th Route Army where rank and officer privileges did not exist. They also became aware that the Communists were giving the peasants land and they began to wonder why they were fighting and many began to desert.

  The astonishment and alarm which these events produced among the followers of Chiang Kai-shek were naturally great, but they had at the same time to cope with disasters of another nature. On the island of Formosa, far from the scenes of the fighting, the Taiwan people, angered beyond endurance by the excesses of Chiang Kai-shek's carpetbaggers, turned on the government and revolted. The generalissimo dispatched a division of troops from the mainland to quell the rebellion. Acting either on his own initiative or on instructions from above, the Chinese commander turned his soldiers loose on the civilian population and within the space of a few weeks slaughtered five thousand unarmed men, women and children, many of them being killed before the eyes of Western businessmen, missionaries and consular officials. At the same moment, Manchurians, also driven to desperate straits by Chiang's greedy looters, terrorists and executioners, began to rim over to the 8th Route Army. Worse still, in the mountains of Shansi and Honan and in the plains of Shantung, Hopei and Kiangsu, in areas where Chiang's control was supposedly unchallenged, there suddenly burst forth the violence of peasant uprisings.

  国民党军官和在外地主从城市回到农村,向人民征收苛捐杂税达到敲骨吸髓的程度,造成民不聊生,许多人活活饿死。

  正如我们所看到的,这些倒行逆施并没有使华北人民屈服,反而激起了他们的仇恨。因为当国民党军队,特别是由国民党武装的地主恶霸毒打、屠杀和挖坑活埋农民的时候,在人民勇敢的心灵里激起的并不只是恐怖,这种恐怖还产生了与对国民党军队和地主屈服完全相反的结果。还可以看到这种情况:不论富农和中农——他们是蒋介石事业的朋友,还是贫农、雇农——他们是蒋介石的天然敌人,统统都容易成为掠夺、抢劫、野蛮对待的牺牲品。这样一来,华北人民除了拿起武器以外无路可走,无法安生。成千上万先前在战争中持中立态度的人,现在也感到有必要暂时去当兵,或参加民兵。于是,就从西面山西的山区和东面河北、河南及山东平原涌现出了一支农民大军。

  长期习惯于使用武器的新兵加入了村、县的民兵队伍,于是在这场战争中除了已经使用大炮、坦克、火箭、 美制B—25轰炸机以外,还增添了长矛、杀猪刀、镰刀、铁锤、猎枪和妇女们使用的剪刀等武器。人们一经举起这些武器,不等到报了仇、雪了恨,就决不会再放下来。

  Kuomintang officers and absentee landlords, returning to the villages from the cities, levied taxes of such a ferocious nature on the people that they were in many cases deprived of their means of existence and starved to death.

  As we have seen, the effects of such actions were not to make the people of North China droop, but rage; for when Kuomintang soldiers, and especially landlords and village gangsters armed by the Kuomintang, tortured, murdered and buried alive peasants in common pits, terror was not only raised in the bravest hearts, but this terror produced the reverse of submission to the Kuomintang army and to the landlords. It was seen that rich farmers and middle peasants, friends of Chiang's cause, as well as the landless farmers and the tenants who were his natural enemies, were also liable to be the victims of plunder, robbery and brutal treatment; and thus the people of North China had no choice of action; they had no means of security left but of taking up arms. Thousands who were heretofore neutral in the war saw the necessity of becoming temporary soldiers or militiamen, and thus a farmer army poured forth from the Shansi Mountains on the west and the plains of Hopei, Honan and Shantung on the east.

  With recruits, long accustomed to the use of arms, entering into the village and county militia, there soon developed a warfare which added to the already existing weapons of artillery, bazookas and American B-25s such arms as spears, pig knives, sickles, hammers, rabbit rifles and scissors wielded by women who had become like hyenas. And once such arms had been raised, they were never to be put down until rage, revenge and hate had exhausted their users.

  这种战争的直接军事作用是牵制蒋军,扰乱其后方。从太行山里的白坨村的例子可以看出这种战争使敌人烦恼到了什么程度。国民党军队老是来这里抢劫,激起了村民们的愤怒,他们从附近的山上搬来石头,在村内所有街道上建起一人高的衔垒,窗子也用石头砌起来,设下埋伏,等国民党又进村枪劫时就打。他们用少量的步枪为武器组成了游击队。很快,附近的树庄也仿效这种做法,最后整个农村都拿起武器反对国民党的驻军。这时,大批贫农、雇农和农业工人受到土改的巨大鼓舞,涌到共产党阵营一边来,而另一方面,地主和部分富农投向了国民党一边。由于穷人在数量上远多于富人,所以形势显然对共产党有利。

  这种情形本来足以使最鲁莽的指挥官也要停下来考虑一下。但这时国民党当局仍执迷不悟,以至于在二、三个月以后,也就是一九四七年夏天,形势已更加恶化的时候,国民党发言人还声称战争已经结束了百分之七十,剩下的仅仅是清剿行动而已。这种乐观主义十分没道理,人们只好认为这是穷极无聊的玩笑。

  The immediate military effect of this kind of war was to tie down troops and make Chiang's rear unsafe. How annoying this can be is to be seen from the village of Paicha in the Taihang Mountains. Having been aroused by the constant looting expeditions of Kuomintang soldiers, the villagers obtained rocks from a near-by hill, built head-high barricades across all their streets, stoned up their windows and ambushed the next Kuomintang foraging group that came to town. Then, armed with a few rifles, they organized a militia. Soon the villages thereabouts followed this example until the whole countryside was up in arms against the local Kuomintang regiment.

  Meanwhile, on the flood of passion created by the land reform, a horde of poor peasants, tenants and agricultural workers poured into the Communist camp, while on the other side, landlords and some rich farmers joined the Kuomintang. Since the poor are more numerous than the rich, it is easy to see that the Communists benefited by this state of affairs.

  Now, here were conditions that should have given even the rashest of commanders pause. But they seem to have affected the Kuomintang hierarchy so little at this time that even two and three months later, in the summer of 1947, when things were much worse, Kuomintang spokesmen were claiming that 70 percent of the war was over and only mopping-up campaigns remained.

  It is hard to account for this optimism unless one looks on it as a gallows joke.